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Health Technology Assessment (HTA) processes have become a fundamental part in the lifecycle of new medicines. However, their deep relation with national legislation creates ambiguous and controversial results between the European countries. Can they be standardized across Europe?
Sources of national differences have been identified in timelines, documents, methods, data interpretation, and conclusions. In order to harmonize and standardize HTA cooperation across Europe the European Network for HTA (EUnetHTA) was established. We analyzed guidelines, requirements, and output of EUnetHTA and noted the differences between those guidelines and the German G-BA (Federal Joint Committee, Gemeinsamer Bundesausschuss) standard and IQWiG (Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care, Institut für Qualität und Wirtschaftlichkeit im Gesundheitswesen) methods.
The comparison between German and European HTAs highlights that although both procedures follow the rules of Evidence-Based Medicine, differences in Body of Evidence, Comparator, Surrogate Endpoints, Subgroups, and Evidence Synthesis may lead to diverging HTA outcomes. The European HTA framework facilitates the appropriate depiction of clinical reality through comprehensive inclusion of the existing evidence with context specific statistical methods. It might become a worldwide platform for HTA evaluation and discussion.
Only the involvement of both, pharmaceutical companies and HTA bodies within a unified European framework can lead to a mature and transparent procedure with a reliable outcome independent of legal requirements.
This is a copy of the slides presented at the meeting but not formally written up for the volume.
Complex oxides show a broad spectrum of intrinsic functionalities, such as ferroelectricity, magnetism, superconductivity or multiferroic behavior, which can be utilized and combined in electronic devices by the growth and design of heterostructures. Physical properties may arise in such multilayers that are not found in either of their constituents. A spectacular example for such a phenomenon, a conducting and highly mobile electron gas, is formed at the interface between the two insulating, dielectric perovskites LaAlO3 and SrTiO3  which can be easily tuned by transverse electric fields . In our contribution we will present recent studies of the microstructure of the multilayer and we will correlate them with the transport properties of the electron gas.  A. Ohtomo, H. Y. Hwang, Nature 427, 423-426 (2004).  S. Thiel, G. Hammerl, A. Schmehl, C. W. Schneider, J. Mannhart, Science 313, 1942-1945 (2006).
In the present study, we comparatively investigate the distribution of electronic interface states of three different perovskite oxide interfaces, formed by epitaxial thin films of La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO), La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 (LCMO), and La0.7Ce0.3MnO3 (LCeMO) on SrTiO3(100) substrates, in the as-prepared state as well as after an annealing procedure. We find that annealing significantly reduces the number and density of interface trap states. Two different experimental realizations of the surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS) technique were employed: an approach based on X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), as well as a capacitive method. The advantages and limitations of both methods are critically discussed.
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