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Background: Adults are at risk of being exposed to influenza from many sources. Healthcare personnel (HCP) have the additional risk of being exposed to ill patients.
To determine whether HCP were at higher risk than adults working in nonhealthcare roles (non-HCP).
Prospective cohort study.
Acute-care hospitals and other businesses in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Adults aged 18–69 years were enrolled for 1 or more of the 2010/2011, 2011/2012, and 2012/2013 influenza seasons. Swabs collected during acute respiratory illnesses were tested for influenza and pre- and postseason blood samples were tested for influenza-specific immune response.
The adjusted odds of influenza were similar for HCP and non-HCP (odds ratio [OR], 1.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.63–2.63). Older adults and those vaccinated against influenza had lower odds, and those who shared their workspace and who used corrective eyewear had higher odds of influenza.
HCP and other working adults are at similar risk of influenza infection.
Today, top-down processes, centralized IT infrastructures, and one-vendor strategies prevail in Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) of large multi-brand Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) groups. Given the usually decentralized organisation and structures and processes that emerge from cross-brand collaboration, these centralized approaches are challenging the adaptiveness and performance of the OEM groups.
In this concept paper, we investigate challenges for cross-brand and cross-domain cooperation from the perspective of processes and IT systems. The main contribution of this paper is that we motivate and outline a novel technical architecture approach combining service-orientation with an event-driven software architecture and asynchronous event processing to support users from different brands and domains in their collaboration along the development process. We analyse related work on collaboration models as well as on event processing and discuss our approach before the background of the state of the art. Finally, we summarize our findings and give an outlook to future research venues.
The English auxiliary system exhibits many lexical exceptions and subregularities, and considerable dialectal variation, all of which are frequently omitted from generative analyses and discussions. This paper presents a detailed, movement-free account of the English Auxiliary System within Sign-Based Construction Grammar (Sag 2010, Michaelis 2011, Boas & Sag 2012) that utilizes techniques of lexicalist and construction-based analysis. The resulting conception of linguistic knowledge involves constraints that license hierarchical structures directly (as in context-free grammar), rather than by appeal to mappings over such structures. This allows English auxiliaries to be modeled as a class of verbs whose behavior is governed by general and class-specific constraints. Central to this account is a novel use of the feature aux, which is set both constructionally and lexically, allowing for a complex interplay between various grammatical constraints that captures a wide range of exceptional patterns, most notably the vexing distribution of unstressed do, and the fact that Ellipsis can interact with other aspects of the analysis to produce the feeding and blocking relations that are needed to generate the complex facts of EAS. The present approach, superior both descriptively and theoretically to existing transformational approaches, also serves to undermine views of the biology of language and acquisition such as Berwick et al. (2011), which are centered on mappings that manipulate hierarchical phrase structures in a structure-dependent fashion.
Does government party support decline in a monotonic fashion throughout the legislative cycle or do we observe a u-shaped “electoral cycle effect”? Moving beyond the study of midterm election results, this is the first comparative study to assess the cyclical pulse of government party support in parliamentary democracies based on voting intention polls from 171 cycles in 22 countries. On average, government parties lose support during the first half of the electoral cycle, but at most partially recover from their initial losses. Under single-party government and when prime ministers control cabinet dissolution, support tends to follow the previously assumed u-shaped pattern more strongly. Finally, we find that government parties hardly recover from early losses since the 2000s.
Gray matter (GM) ‘pseudoatrophy’ is well-documented in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN), but changes in white matter (WM) are less well understood. Here we investigated the dynamics of microstructural WM brain changes in AN patients during short-term weight restoration in a combined longitudinal and cross-sectional study design.
Diffusion-weighted images were acquired in young AN patients before (acAN-Tp1, n = 56) and after (acAN-Tp2, n = 44) short-term weight restoration as well as in age-matched healthy controls (HC, n = 60). Images were processed using Tract-Based-Spatial-Statistics to compare fractional anisotropy (FA) across groups and timepoints.
In the cross-sectional comparison, FA was significantly reduced in the callosal body in acAN-Tp1 compared with HC, while no differences were found between acAN-Tp2 and HC. In the longitudinal arm, FA increased with weight gain in acAN-Tp2 relative to acAN-Tp1 in large parts of the callosal body and the fornix, while it decreased in the right corticospinal tract.
Our findings reveal that dynamic, bidirectional changes in WM microstructure in young underweight patients with AN can be reversed with brief weight restoration therapy. These results parallel those previously observed in GM and suggest that alterations in WM in non-chronic AN are also state-dependent and rapidly reversible with successful intervention.
We present a novel bonding process for gallium nitride-based electronic devices on diamond heat spreaders. In the proposed technology, GaN devices are transferred from silicon (Si) onto single (SCD) and polycrystalline diamond (PCD) substrates by van der Waals bonding. Load-pull measurements on Si and SCD heat spreaders at 3 GHz and 50 V drain bias show comparable power-added-efficiency and output power (Pout) levels. A thermal analysis of the hybrids was performed by comparison of 2 × 1mm2 AlGaN/GaN Schottky diodes on Si, PCD, and SCD, which exhibit a homogeneous field in the channel in contrast to gated transistors. Significantly different currents are observed due to the temperature dependent mobility in the 2DEG channel. These measurements are supported by a 3D thermal finite element analysis, which suggests a large impact of our transfer technique on the thermal resistance of these devices. In summary, we show a promising new GaN-on-diamond technology for future high-power, microwave GaN device applications.
Deligne cohomology is a tool that makes it possible to unify the study of cycles through an object that classifies extensions of (p, p)-cycles by points in the p-th intermediate Jacobian (which is the target of the Abel–Jacobi map on cycles of codimension p). This is treated in Section 10.1 with applications to normal functions.
Before giving the proof of Nori's theorem in Section 10.6, we need some results from mixed Hodge theory. These are proven in Section 10.2 where we also state different variants of the theorem. Sections 10.3 and 10.4 treat a localto- global principle and an extension of the method of Jacobian representations of cohomology which are both essential for the proof. We finish the chapter with some applications of Nori's theorem and discuss the conjectured filtrations on the Chow groups to which these lead.
A Detour into Deligne Cohomology with Applications
Here we introduce Deligne cohomology in the form first defined by P. Deligne. We illustrate its connections to intermediate Jacobians and explain its functorial properties. Then we give the second proof of Theorem 9.1.3. The results of this section are not needed for an understanding of the rest of the chapter, and some readers may want to skip this section and read it later. In the historical remarks at the end of the chapter we point out some further directions where Deligne–Beilinson cohomology becomes more important. Deligne cohomology was defined first by P. Deligne and later extended by A. Beilinson. We use here mainly the original version of Deligne without growth conditions for noncompact spaces. Beilinson later imposed such growth conditions in order to get a more functorial theory. The extension of Beilinson has been worked out in detail in Esnault and Viehweg (1988).
Definition 10.1.1 Let X be a Kahler manifold. Define the analytic Deligne complex on X by
This is a complex of sheaves in the analytic topology and we put the first sheaf (2πi)pZ, which is a constant subsheaf of C, in degree 0. Hence the last sheaf, sits in degree p. We denote by
the 2p-th hypercohomology of this complex and call it the Deligne cohomology group of X.