Please note, due to essential maintenance online transactions will not be possible between 02:30 and 04:00 BST, on Tuesday 17th September 2019 (22:30-00:00 EDT, 17 Sep, 2019). We apologise for any inconvenience.
To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Bipolar disorder I (BD-I) is defined by episodes of mania, depression and euthymic states. These episodes are among other symptoms characterized by altered reward processing and negative symptoms (NS), in particular apathy. However, the neural correlates of these deficits are not well understood.
We first assessed the severity of NS in 25 euthymic BD-I patients compared with 25 healthy controls (HC) and 27 patients with schizophrenia (SZ). Then, we investigated ventral (VS) and dorsal striatal (DS) activation during reward anticipation in a Monetary Incentive Delayed Task and its association with NS.
In BD-I patients NS were clearly present and the severity of apathy was comparable to SZ patients. Apathy scores in the BD-I group but not in the SZ group correlated with sub-syndromal depression scores. At the neural level, we found significant VS and DS activation in BD-I patients and no group differences with HC or SZ patients. In contrast to patients with SZ, apathy did not correlate with striatal activation during reward anticipation. Explorative whole-brain analyses revealed reduced extra-striatal activation in BD-I patients compared with HC and an association between reduced activation of the inferior frontal gyrus and apathy.
This study found that in BD-I patients apathy is present to an extent comparable to SZ, but is more strongly related to sub-syndromal depressive symptoms. The findings support the view of different pathophysiological mechanisms underlying apathy in the two disorders and suggest that extra-striatal dysfunction may contribute to impaired reward processing and apathy in BD-I.
The synergistic combination of two promising engine architectures for future aero engines is presented. The first is the Composite Cycle Engine, which introduces a piston system in the high pressure part of the core engine, to utilise closed volume combustion and high temperature capability due to instationary operation. The second is the Intercooled Recuperated engine that employs recuperators to utilise waste heat from the core engine exhaust and intercooler to improve temperature levels for recuperation and to reduce compression work. Combinations of both architectures are presented and investigated for improvement potential with respect to specific fuel consumption, engine weight and fuel burn against a turbofan. The Composite Cycle alone provides a 15.6% fuel burn reduction against a turbofan. Options for adding intercooler were screened, and a benefit of up to 1.9% fuel burn could be shown for installation in front of a piston system through a significant, efficiency-neutral weight decrease. Waste heat can be utilised by means of classic recuperation to the entire core mass flow before the combustor, or alternatively on the turbine cooling bleed or a piston engine bypass flow that is mixed again with the main flow before the combustor. As further permutation, waste heat can be recovered either after the low pressure turbine – with or without sequential combustion – or between the high pressure and low pressure turbine. Waste heat recovery after the low pressure turbine was found to be not easily feasible or tied to high fuel burn penalties due to unfavourable temperature levels, even when using sequential combustion or intercooling. Feasible temperature levels could be obtained with inter-turbine waste heat recovery but always resulted in at least 0.3% higher fuel burn compared to the non-recuperated baseline under the given assumptions. Consequently, only the application of an intercooler appears to provide a considerable benefit for the examined thermodynamic conditions in the low fidelity analyses of various engine architecture combinations with the specific heat exchanger design. Since the obtained drawbacks of some waste heat utilisation concepts are small, innovative waste heat management concepts coupled with the further extension of the design space and the inclusion of higher fidelity models may achieve a benefit and motivate future investigations.
Cognitive remediation is a promising pathway for ameliorating cognitive impairment of patients with schizophrenia. Here, we investigate predictors of improvement in problem-solving ability for two different types of cognitive remediation – specific problem-solving training and training of basic cognition. For this purpose we conducted a re-analysis of a randomized controlled trial comparing these two training approaches. The main outcome measure was improvement in problem-solving performance. Correlational analyses were used to assess the contribution of clinical, cognitive and training-related predictors. In the problem-solving training group, impaired pre-training planning ability was associated with stronger improvement. In contrast, in the basic cognition training group antipsychotic medication dose emerged as a negative predictor. These results demonstrate that predictors for successful cognitive remediation depend on the specific intervention. Furthermore, our results suggest that at least in the planning domain patients with impaired performance benefit particularly from a specific intervention. (JINS, 2014, 20, 1–6)
The previously developed method to prepare highly dispersed metals in SiO2 by sol-gel processing of metal complexes containing alkoxysilyl-substituted ligands was extended to the preparation (i) of bimetallic particles in SiO2 and (ii) of highly dispersed metals in TiO2.
Deficits in executive functioning are closely related to the level of everyday functioning in patients with schizophrenia. However, many existing neuropsychological measures are limited in their ability to predict functional outcome. To contribute towards closing this gap, we developed a computer-based test of planning ability (“Plan-a-Day”) that requires participants to create daily activity schedules in a simulated work setting. Eighty patients diagnosed with schizophrenia were tested with Plan-a-Day and a battery of cognitive ability tests. Plan-a-Day showed satisfactory psychometric properties in terms of consistency, reliability, and construct validity. Compared to other neuropsychological tests used in this study, it also demonstrated incremental validity with regard to the Global Assessment of Functioning. The Plan-a-Day approach, therefore, seems to represent a valid alternative for measuring planning ability in patients with executive function deficits, occupying a middle ground between traditional neuropsychological tests and real-life assessments. (JINS, 2011, 17, 327–335)
The perceptions of resource users towards any conservation policy can be a major determinant of its success. While co-management policy can enhance the management of fisheries, to date there have been few reports concerning how engagement in co-management regimes may affect fishers' perceptions. This paper assesses the determinants of fishers' environmental perceptions within a co-management regime in Chile. Group meetings and structured questionnaires showed fishers' environmental perceptions were composed of four domains of concern, termed ‘water pollution’, ‘stock conservation’, ‘conservation/profit trade-offs’ and ‘charismatic species’. Fishers' dependence on diving and/or the length of time fishers had engaged with the policy affected their perceptions of each of these domains. Perceptions of the ‘water pollution’ domain were related to length of time fishers had participated in co-management, probably because fishers gained an increased understanding of the market and its need for unpolluted produce. Attitudes towards ‘conservation/profit trade-offs’ tended to become linked to an increasingly conservation-oriented ethic with increasing time of engagement with the policy. Given that the length of time fishers engaged with co-management differentially affected fishers' perceptions of environmental domains of concern, public officials and funding agencies should be careful not to judge co-management prematurely. It takes time to educate participants and overcome distrust. Through co-management processes in Chile, fishers' environmental awareness increased, and sustainable behaviours may consequently increase in the future.
The East Asian countries of China, Japan and Korea (Republic of Korea, ROK) are unique in the modern world in that they continue (to varying degrees) to use a non-phonetic script. This is a reflection of their past, when they shared a common heritage in the form of shared use of Classical Chinese.
Until about 100 years ago, Classical Chinese was the language of the educated in these countries (and also in Vietnam), although the respective forms of the vernacular were used for everyday and literary purposes. However, the situation altered significantly in the first half of the twentieth century due to changes in language policy. The most dramatic differences are that Vietnam changed to the Roman alphabet in 1910 (Tuttle 1996, p. 691), and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) abolished the use of Chinese characters altogether in 1949 (King 1996, p. 219); there were various minor changes too.
As a result of more than a millennium of language contact, plus centuries of language modernisation using Chinese loan translations, China, Japan and Korea (as well as Vietnam) now have a large body of cognate vocabulary that is based on Chinese morphemes (for an example, see the section ‘Policy regarding foreign words’ below).
Any discussion of future developments of these East Asian languages needs to take into consideration two points:
the degree to which there are shared elements in the vocabulary (and their written representation) of the three languages, and to what degree this is magnified or diminished by national language/script policy;
the problems that non-phonetic writing systems cause for computer input (these issues are of varying magnitude, depending on the language).