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The CMP challenges for advanced technology nodes are discussed. Global and local uniformity challenges and their cumulative effects are presented. Uniformity improvements for advanced node integration were achieved through slurry, pad and platen optimization, innovative integration schemes, the reduction of incoming variation and the reduction of cumulative effects. We discuss reduction of typical CMP defect types. Defects resulting from simple mechanisms (foreign material, polish residues) and those resulting from chemical and physical interactions (corrosion, chemical attack, scratches, physical migration) and strategies for control are studied. Defectivity reduction measures include new post-CMP clean chemicals, new slurries and pads and reduction of incoming defectivity. Finally we discuss an observed tradeoff between good defectivity and good uniformity.
As the scaling of the device dimensions in CMOS devices runs into physical limitations, new materials beyond Si with high electron and hole mobilities such as Ge, SiGe, and III-V materials are introduced. Challenges of CMP for these materials are reviewed in this paper. First we discussed the challenge of the new integration schemes to CMP. Loading effects can result in different growth rates for varying feature sizes, which results in a critical dimension dependent overburden. This makes it more difficult to meet the targets of the CMP process with respect to oxide loss and Ge/SiGe/III-V dishing. Secondly we discuss the challenge for the reduction of the defects during CMP for these new materials. Finally the challenge that is relevant especially for the introduction of III-V materials is studied. During the polishing of III-V materials, toxic gases as well as III-V containing liquid waste will be created. The chemical mechanism of the waste control is discussed.
Various methods for the preparation of microcrystalline (nanocrystalline) silicon are summarized and compared with respect to the possibility of the control of the materials quality and scaling of the deposition process to large area applications. It is shown that the deposition of a pure microcrystalline material is achieved under conditions close to partial chemical equilibrium. The mechanism of the crystallization during the growth will be briefly discussed.
The second part of the paper deals with the physical properties of pure microcrystalline silicon which is free of any amorphous phase detectable by X-ray diffraction, i.e. less than about 1 vol%. Several aspects of electric conductivity, optical absorption and Raman scattering which have been frequently misinterpreted in the literature will be reviewed.
Chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) pads require conditioning to maintain the surfaces yielding optimal performance. However, conditioning not only regenerates the pad surface but also wears away the pad material and slurry transport grooves. Non-optimized conditioning may result in non-uniform pad profiles, limiting the productive lifetimes of pads. A new approach to conditioning uses closed-loop control (CLC) of conditioning sweep to enable uniform groove depth removal across the pad, throughout pad life. A sensor integrated into the conditioning arm enables the pad stack thickness to be monitored in situ and in real time. Feedback from the thickness sensor is used to modify pad conditioner dwell times across the pad surface, correcting for drifts in the pad profile that may arise as the pad and disk age. Pad profile CLC enables uniform reduction in groove depth with continued conditioning, providing longer consumables lifetimes and reduced operating costs.
EcmpTM is a revolutionary planarization technology uniquely combining removal rate controlled by charge with superior planarization efficiency in the near no shear regime. In addition, the electrochemical removal mechanism has excellent within-wafer profile control. Multiple electrical zones configuration combined with a precise end-point control by electric charge, make it more predictable to control the remaining thickness and profile of copper film. The factors affecting the planarization such as the concentration and the efficiency of the inhibitors will be discussed in this paper. Meanwhile a planarization mechanism for Ecmp will be proposed to match the high planarization efficiency. The effects of applied voltage on removal rate and planarization efficiency will be presented in this paper. The electrical feature allows Ecmp to be a planarization process with removal rate independent of down force, enabling a wide removal rate window based on applied voltage.
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