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Major depressive disorder (MDD) represents a leading cause of disability. This study examines the course of disability in patients with chronic, recurrent and remitting MDD compared to healthy controls and identifies predictors of disability in remitting MDD.
We included 914 participants from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). DSM-IV MDD and WHO DAS II disability were assessed at baseline and at 2, 4 and 6 years. Six-year total and domain-specific disability were analysed and compared in participants with chronic (n = 57), recurrent (n = 120), remitting (n = 127) MDD and in healthy controls (n = 430). Predictors of residual disability were identified using linear regression analysis.
At baseline, most disability was found in chronic MDD, followed by recurrent MDD, remitting MDD and healthy controls. Across diagnostic groups, most disability was found in household activities, interpersonal functioning, participation in society and cognition. A chronic course was associated with chronic disability. Symptom remission was associated with a decrease in disability, but some disability remained. In remitting MDD, higher residual disability was predicted by older age, more severe avoidance symptoms, higher disability at baseline and late symptom remission. Severity of residual disability correlated with the severity of residual depressive symptoms.
Symptomatic remission is a prerequisite for improvements in disability. However, disability persists despite symptom remission. Therefore, treatment of MDD should include an explicit focus on disability, especially on the more complex domains. To this end, treatments should promote behavioural activation and address subthreshold depressive symptoms in patients with remitted MDD.
Barriers to international Ebola preparedness may be elucidated by identifying heterogeneities in arguments to invest in countermeasures during “peace time.”
For each patent family (related patent documents that differed only by limited alterations to the same invention) concerning Ebola and published until the end of 2014 the oldest patent document was analyzed. Grounded theory coding identified 5 unmet needs for (1) vaccines and therapies, (2) control of outbreaks in endemic areas, (3) detection and control of outbreaks in nonendemic areas, (4) better understanding of filoviruses, and (5) protection against bioterrorism. Odds ratios for unmet needs by geographic regions and institution types were compared by using Pearson’s chi-square test.
Statistically significant heterogeneities in unmet need profiles were found. US applicants combined self-centric and altruistic arguments, focusing on medical unmet needs and bioterrorism protection. Russian and Asian applicants emphasized self-centric motives, specifically, detection and control of nonendemic outbreaks. A clear, statistically significant mismatch between industry and academia was found: whereas industrial applicants focused on bioterrorism and neglected detection and control of nonendemic outbreaks, academic applicants did the opposite.
This research identified heterogeneities in articulated needs between geographic regions and stakeholder types. Structural articulation of unmet needs may form the basis for attuning stakeholder engagement strategies while progression across the demand-driven value chain might necessitate international concordance. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:644–648)
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