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Licorice extracts are known to exhibit anti-carcinogenic activities. However, chronic licorice consumption can lead to serious side effects due to the presence of considerable quantities of glycyrrhizin, which causes severe hypokalaemia and hypertension. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of a hexane–ethanol extract of Glycyrrhiza uralensis (HEGU), which lacks glycyrrhizin, on the metastatic characteristics of DU145 prostate cancer cells. HEGU inhibited basal and epidermal growth factor-induced cell migration, invasion and adhesion in a dose-dependent fashion. HEGU significantly suppressed the secretion and activation of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9. The secretion of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 was reduced, but that of TIMP-2 was increased in HEGU-treated cells. HEGU reduced the protein levels of integrin-α2, the intercellular adhesion molecule, and the vascular cell adhesion molecule. An active fraction of HEGU was separated via column chromatography, and the structure of the active component, licoricidin, was identified via 1H NMR and 13C NMR. The treatment of DU145 cells with licoricidin induced a reduction in cell migration and the secretion of MMP-9, TIMP-1, urokinase-type plasminogen activator and vascular endothelial growth factor, as well as in the expression of adhesion molecules. These results indicate that HEGU, which contains licoricidin, is a potent anti-metastatic agent, which can markedly inhibit the metastatic and invasive capacity of malignant prostate cancer cells. The observed reductions in the activation of proteases and the levels of adhesion molecules may constitute a component of the mechanisms by which HEGU inhibits the migration and adhesion of prostate cancer cells.
In the thin film transistor fabrication process, tin doped indium oxide (ITO) or zinc doped indium oxide (IZO) film can be easily exposed to hydrogen-containing plasma during the deposition of silicon nitride (SiNx) film. By this exposure, ITO or IZO can be easily reduced into its corresponding metallic element such as indium, which degrades the optical transmittance and the conductivity. In this study, SiNx was deposited onto ITO or IZO film, and the oxygen reduction of ITO or IZO during PECVD SiNx deposition was analyzed to clarify this phenomenon. The oxygen reduction during PECVD SiNx deposition is mainly induced by decomposed NH3 gas. However, the progress of ITO reduction is different from that of IZO reduction, due to the different atomic composition of In2O3 in the composite and the different critical temperature of reduction initiation between indium oxide, tin oxide, and zinc oxide.
This study of the indentation behavior of Si has revealed a complex process of mechanical deformation. As loading time increased, Si-XII and Si-III disappeared and only a-Si appeared in (111) samples. As loading time increased, crack was generated and residual stress was removed. At fast loading rate, the deformation behavior appears predominantly elastic. On the contrary, at slow loading rate, catastrophic plastic deformation occurred during loading stage.
We have observed crack behavior which occurred under spherical indentation in crystalline silicon. Method which was used in our research for cross-sectional observation exaggerated generation and propagation of cracks. Our method prepares to observe crack behavior. But it is not profit to observe to phase transformation
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