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The chapter begins with a quick summary and research update on earlier lists of 10 questionable multimedia principles. We then add five additional principles that have gained traction in recent years. The updated 10 former questionable beliefs include the unfulfilled expectations that multimedia instruction: (1) yields more learning than live instruction or older media, (2) is more motivating than other instructional media, (3) provides animated pedagogical agents that aid learning, (4) accommodates different learning styles and so maximizes learning for more students; and also benefits learning by allowing and encouraging (5) student managed constructivist and discovery approaches, (6) autonomy and control over the sequencing of instruction, (7) higher order thinking skills, (8) incidental learning of enriching information, (9) interactivity, and (10) authentic learning environments and activities.
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