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The Diptera fauna from the late Eocene of the Isle of Wight (Bembridge Marls) is studied including redescriptions of formerly described material. The fauna includes the following taxa: Anisopodidae – one species; Bibionidae – 11 species; Ceratopogonidae – one described and two unidentified species; Chironomidae – undetermined species of three subfamilies; Culicidae – four species; Cylindrotomidae – one species; Dixidae – one species; Keroplatidae – one described and four unidentified species; Limoniidae – 31 species; Mycetophilidae – 14 species; Psychodidae – two species; Scatopsidae – two species; Sciaridae – three species; Simuliidae – an unnamed species; Tipulidae – nine species. Diptera Brachycera: Agromyzidae – unidentified species; Anthomyzidae – two species; Asilidae – two species; Bombyliidae – one species; Chloropidae – one species; Dolichopodidae – unidentified species; Empididae – unidentified species; Ephydridae – two species; Heleomyzidae – unidentified species; Lauxaniidae – unidentified species; Otitidae – one species; Phoridae – unidentified species; Rhagionidae – two species; Stratiomyidae – two species; Syrphidae – unidentified species; Tabanidae – one species. Following new taxa are described: Leptotarsus (Longurio) fragmentatus Krzemiński, n. sp., Leptotarsus (Longurio) wegiereki Krzemiński, n. sp., Tipula (s. lato) anglicana Krzemiński, n. sp. (Tipulidae); Cyttaromyiarossi Krzemiński, n. sp. (Cylindrotomidae); Gurnardia corami Krzemiński, n. gen, n. sp., Pilaria hooleyi Krzemiński, n. sp., Pilaria volodii Krzemiński, n. sp., Cheilotrichia (Cheilotrichia) duplicata Krzemiński, n. sp., Cheilotrichia (Empeda) szwedoi Krzemiński, n. sp., Symplecta (Psiloconopa) gurnetensis Krzemiński, n. sp., Orimarga (Orimarga) lenae Krzemiński, n. sp., Dicranomyia (Dicranomyia) azari Krzemiński, n. sp., Dicranomyia (Dicranomyia) fasciata Krzemiński, n. sp., Helius (Helius) edmundi Krzemiński, n. sp., Helius (Helius) popovi Krzemiński, n. sp., Dicranoptycha staryi Krzemiński, n. sp. (Limoniidae); Wightipsychoda Azar, n. gen. (Psychodidae); Dilophus andrewrossi Nel, Colomb & Waller, n. sp., Bibiodes massiliensis Nel, Colomb & Waller, n. sp. (Bibionidae); Azana cockerelli Blagoderov, n. sp., Aglaomyia vectis Blagoderov, n. sp., Dziedzickia oligocenica Blagoderov, n. sp., Palaeoempalia saxea Blagoderov, n. sp., Mycomyahoolei Blagoderov, n. sp., Leia gurnardensis Blagoderov, n. sp. (Mycetophilidae); Regmocleminahaennii Krzemiński, n. sp. (Scatopsidae); Sylvicola problematica Krzemiński, n. sp. (Anisopodidae); Palaeoberidops barkeri Nicholson, n. gen., n. sp. (Stratiomyidae). The Diptera fauna and palaeohabitat of the Insect Bed is discussed.
Three fossil taxa of megapodagrionid damselflies are described and figured from the Paleogene localities in Europe on the basis of isolated wings. Eckfeldia superstes (Wappler, 2003) gen. nov. is described from the laminated mudstones of middle Eocene age from Eckfeld Maar, Germany. Furagrion jutlandicus (Henriksen, 1922) gen. nov. is recorded from the laminated claystones of lowermost Eocene age from the Ølst and Fur-Formation, Denmark, and an undetermined megapodagrionid damselfly is recognized from middle Eocene strata. Taphonomy and color preservation in the fossils are briefly considered. Characters used for phylogenetic analyses in extant and fossil Megapodagrionidae are discussed. The biogeographic and paleoecological implications of the new European fossils are briefly discussed.
The Nemestrinidae or tangle-veined flies are a small group of brachycerous flies with about 300 extant and fossil species (Evenhuis, 1994). Many of them are large to medium-sized flies with a densely pilose body. They have a unique wing venation with a compound diagonal vein which is an apomorphic character for Nemestrinidae (Yeates, 1994). The diagonal vein comprises elements of veins R, M, and Cu and it crosses the wing obliquely. Adult nemestrinids often occur in open areas and many feed on the nectar of flowers (Richter, 1997). Nemestrinid larvae appear to be internal parasitoids of Orthoptera (grasshoppers) and can even control the population numbers of Acridoidea (Orthoptera: Caelifera); however, the species of Hirmoneura Meigen, 1820 develop in larvae of scarabaeid beetles (Richter, 1997). As far as is known, the female places the eggs in the host's habitat and the first-instar larvae actively search out their host. Larval development takes about 40 days, but there may be a long diapause (inactive period) before 20 to 30 days of pupation take place. Adults live for about 25 to 45 days (Richter, 1997).
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