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The aim of this study was to explore the effects and mechanisms of different starvation treatments on the compensatory growth of Acipenser dabryanus. 120 fish (60.532 ± 0.284 g) were randomly assigned to 4 groups (fasting 0, 3, 7or 14 days and then refed for 14 days). During fasting, MBW decreased significantly with prolonged starvation. The whole body and muscle composition, serum biochemical indexes, visceral indexes and digestive enzyme activities had been effected with varying degrees of changes The GH level in serum was significantly increased in 14D; however, IGF-1 showed the opposite trend. The npy mRNA level in brain was significantly improved in 7D, pyy mRNA level in intestine was significantly decreased during fasting. After refeeding, the FBW, PWG, SGR, FI, FE and PER showed no difference between 0D and 3D. The changes of whole body and muscle composition, serum biochemical indexes, visceral indexes and digestive enzyme activities had taken place in varying degrees. GH levels in 3D and 7D were significantly higher than those in the 0D, the IGF-1 content decreased significantly during refeeding. There was no significant difference in npy and pyy mRNA levels. These results indicated that short-term fasting followed by refeeding resulted in full compensation and the physiological and biochemical effects on A. dabryanus were the lowest after three days of starvation and 14 days of refeeding. Additionally, compensation in A. dabryanus may be mediated by appetite genes and growth hormones, and the degree of compensation is also affected by the duration of starvation.
Direct numerical simulation of polymer-induced flow relaminarization of turbulent spanwise-rotating plane Couette flow (RPCF) is reported for the first time. Specifically, the reverse transition pathway from a Newtonian turbulent RPCF to a fully relaminarized drag enhanced viscoelastic flow has been elucidated. Evidently, this transition occurs gradually by weakening and eventual elimination of small-scale vortices as the Weissenberg number (
) is enhanced, paving the way for a two-dimensional laminar flow consisting of large-scale and highly organized roll cells. The influence of polymer additives on convective momentum exchange by large-scale roll cells and small-scale turbulent vortices, namely, the drag reduction (DR) realized by elimination of turbulent vortices and the significant drag enhancement (DE) that results from polymer roll cell interactions has been identified as the mechanism of DE. The observed vortical changes point to a universal mechanism for the coupling of polymer chains and turbulent vortices in wall-bounded viscoelastic DE and DR flows.
Since the photocatalytic effect of a single conventional photocatalyst is often not ideal, it is particularly important to design and construct an efficient and stable photocatalyst in a compound way. In this study, we exploited the sol–gel method to combine BiOCl and TiO2 and gave full play to their respective advantages to prepare BiOCl/TiO2 composite materials. Then, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and transmission electron microscope (TEM) characterization techniques were utilized to study important indicators of composites—composition, morphology, and structure. In the photodegradation experiment of methyl orange (MO), it was found that the photocatalytic performance of 10BTO (the molar ratio of TiO2 to BiOCl is 10:1) was the best among all the composite photocatalysts, and almost complete degradation of MO was realized. Besides, repeated experiments and recyclability tests on composite materials display favorable stability. Through ultraviolet–visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV–Vis DRS), photoluminescence (PL), transient photocurrent response, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and electron spin resonance (ESR), a possible degradation mechanism is proposed. Given that there are serious environmental pollution problems in our country, we sincerely hope this research will do its best to degrade organic pollutants in wastewater.
Background: In the past few decades, the epidemiology of Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) has evolved. Given recent changes in the incidence of CDI and prevention efforts, we investigated temporal changes over a period of 8 years (2009–2016) in the incidence of and risk factors for CDI. Methods: Both pediatric and adult inpatients discharged from hospitals in metropolitan New York City were included. Individual and environmental (eg, pharmacological) risk factors were identified through a matched case-control by the length of stay at a ratio of 1:4. A Cochran–Armitage test or Mann-Kendall test was used to investigate trends of incidence and risk factors. Results: During the study period, 6,038 of 694,849 (0.87%) patients had a positive test for C. difficile during their hospitalization. Of these, 2,659 of 6,038 (44.04%) were identified as hospital-acquired CDI (HA-CDI) and just over half (3,379 of 6,038, 55.96%) were identified as community-acquired CDI (CA-CDI). There were no trends in total CDI incidence rates; rather, we detected downward trends in HA-CDI and upward trends in CA-CDI (Ptrend < .05). Younger patients and patients with lower risk of illness had HA-CDI over time (Ptrend < .05). Antibiotics were administered to more patients over time and in longer cumulative days (+3% and +3.1% per year). We detected a reduction in the receipt of high-risk antibiotics in all cohorts (−0.12% per year) and a decrease in cumulative days of high-risk antibiotics in the cohort with HA-CDI (−1.1% per year). When stratified by the type of high-risk antibiotics, the use of carbapenem, cephalosporins, clindamycin, and monobactam increased (+0.53%, +1.8%, +0.5%, and +0.39% per year, respectively), whereas the use of broad-spectrum penicillins and glycylcycline significantly decreased over time in all cohorts (−1.8% and −0.22% per year). Among the cohorts with HA-CDI, only cephalosporins showed a significant upward trend (+ 5.7% per year) and only fluoroquinolones showed a significant downward trend (−2.2% per year). Lastly, a reduction of proton pump inhibitors and an increased use of histamine-2 blockers were detected in all cohorts (−3.8% and +7.3% per year) (all Ptrend < .05). Conclusions: Although the incidence of HA-CDI decreased, more effort to decrease all antibiotics use and cumulative days should be emphasized as part of antibiotic stewardship. The downward trends of high-risk antibiotics might have been associated with the decrease in the trend of HA-CDI; however, the impact of the trends of risk factors on the trend of HA-CDI should be further investigated.
The outbreak of COVID-19 generated severe emotional reactions, and restricted mobility was a crucial measure to reduce the spread of the virus. This study describes the changes in public emotional reactions and mobility patterns in the Chinese population during the COVID-19 outbreak.
We collected data on public emotional reactions in response to the outbreak through Weibo, the Chinese Twitter, between 1st January and 31st March 2020. Using anonymized location-tracking information, we analyzed the daily mobility patterns of approximately 90% of Sichuan residents.
There were three distinct phases of the emotional and behavioral reactions to the COVID-19 outbreak. The alarm phase (19th–26th January) was a restriction-free period, characterized by few new daily cases, but a large amount public negative emotions [the number of negative comments per Weibo post increased by 246.9 per day, 95% confidence interval (CI) 122.5–371.3], and a substantial increase in self-limiting mobility (from 45.6% to 54.5%, changing by 1.5% per day, 95% CI 0.7%–2.3%). The epidemic phase (27th January–15th February) exhibited rapidly increasing numbers of new daily cases, decreasing expression of negative emotions (a decrease of 27.3 negative comments per post per day, 95% CI −40.4 to −14.2), and a stabilized level of self-limiting mobility. The relief phase (16th February–31st March) had a steady decline in new daily cases and decreasing levels of negative emotion and self-limiting mobility.
During the COVID-19 outbreak in China, the public's emotional reaction was strongest before the actual peak of the outbreak and declined thereafter. The change in human mobility patterns occurred before the implementation of restriction orders, suggesting a possible link between emotion and behavior.
We explored the genetic architecture of metabolic risk factors of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and their clustering in Chinese boys and girls. Seven metabolic traits (body mass index [BMI], waist circumference [WC], systolic blood pressure [SBP], diastolic blood pressure [DBP], total cholesterol [TC], triglyceride [TG], and uric acid [UA]) were measured in a sample of 1016 twins between 8 and 17 years of age, recruited from the Qingdao Twin Registry. Cholesky, independent pathway, and common pathway models were used to identify the latent genetic structure behind the clustering of these metabolic traits. Genetic architecture of these metabolic traits was largely similar in boys and girls. The highest heritability was found for BMI (a2 = 0.63) in boys and TC (a2 = .69) in girls. Three heritable factors, adiposity (BMI and WC), blood pressure (SBP and DBP), and metabolite factors (TC, TG, and UA), which formed one higher-order latent phenotype, were identified. Latent genetic, common environmental, and unique environmental factors indirectly impacted the three factors through one single latent factor. Our results suggest that there is one latent factor influencing several metabolic traits, which are known risk factors of CVDs in young Chinese twins. Latent genetic, common environmental, and unique environmental factors indirectly imposed on them. These results inform strategies for gene pleiotropic discovery and intervening of CVD risk factors during childhood and adolescence.
This cross-sectional study aimed to examine the associations between dietary fibre (DF) intake and depressive symptoms in a general adult population in Tianjin, China. A total of 24 306 participants (mean age 41 years; range 18–91 years) were enrolled. DF intake was assessed using a validated self-administered FFQ. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Self-Rating Depression Scale. Associations between DF intake and depressive symptoms were estimated using logistic regression analysis. Socio-demographic, behavioural, health status and dietary factors were adjusted. In men, compared with participants in the lowest quartiles for total, soluble, vegetable and soya DF, OR for depressive symptoms in the highest were 0·83 (95 % CI 0·69, 0·99), 0·74 (95 % CI 0·63, 0·87), 0·79 (95 % CI 0·65, 0·96) and 0·69 (95 % CI 0·60, 0·81), respectively. In women, compared with participants in the lowest quartiles for vegetable and soya DF, the OR for depressive symptoms in the highest were 0·77 (95 % CI 0·64, 0·93) and 0·82 (95 % CI 0·70, 0·95), respectively. No association was found between total or soluble DF intake and depressive symptoms in women. No association was found between insoluble, cereal, fruit or tuber DF intake and depressive symptoms in men and women. Linear associations between DF intake and depressive symptoms were only detected for soya DF (men, β = –0·148, P < 0·0001; women, β = –0·069, P = 0·04). Results suggest that intake of soluble, vegetable and soya DF was inversely associated with depressive symptoms. These results should be confirmed through prospective and interventional studies.
Shifts in the maternal gut microbiota have been implicated in the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Understanding the interaction between gut microbiota and host glucose metabolism will provide a new target of prediction and treatment. In this nested case-control study, we aimed to investigate the causal effects of gut microbiota from GDM patients on the glucose metabolism of germ-free (GF) mice. Stool and peripheral blood samples, as well as clinical information, were collected from 45 GDM patients and 45 healthy controls (matched by age and prepregnancy body mass index (BMI)) in the first and second trimester. Gut microbiota profiles were explored by next-generation sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, and inflammatory factors in peripheral blood were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Fecal samples from GDM and non-GDM donors were transferred to GF mice. The gut microbiota of women with GDM showed reduced richness, specifically decreased Bacteroides and Akkermansia, as well as increased Faecalibacterium. The relative abundance of Akkermansia was negatively associated with blood glucose levels, and the relative abundance of Faecalibacterium was positively related to inflammatory factor concentrations. The transfer of fecal microbiota from GDM and non-GDM donors to GF mice resulted in different gut microbiota colonization patterns, and hyperglycemia was induced in mice that received GDM donor microbiota. These results suggested that the shifting pattern of gut microbiota in GDM patients contributed to disease pathogenesis.
In the present paper, the authors investigated the microstructures and mechanical properties of dual-phase Co–Ti–V-based superalloys with different additions of Ru. The results showed that with the increase of Ru contents, the size of γ′ precipitates of the alloy gradually raised, the volume fraction of γ′ phase slightly, and the lattice misfit between γ/γ′ phases increased. Ru was enriched in the γ′ phase, and the elemental partition coefficients (KX = Cγ′/Cγ) of Ti and V increased with the increment of Ru. The Ru contents have no remarkable influence on the solvus temperatures of γ′ in the Co–Ti–V alloys. The yield strength at 1000 °C of the Co–10Ti–11V–0.5Ru alloy was the highest, while the yield strength of the 1Ru alloy was the smallest. Transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy observations showed that the γ′ shape in the compressed specimen containing 0.5Ru remain integrated, while the γ′ in other alloys were cut into several parts.
No studies have reported on how to relieve distress or relax in medical health workers while wearing medical protective equipment in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The study aimed to establish which relaxation technique, among six, is the most feasible in first-line medical health workers wearing medical protective equipment.
This was a two-step study collecting data with online surveys. Step 1: 15 first-line medical health workers were trained to use six different relaxation techniques and reported the two most feasible techniques while wearing medical protective equipment. Step 2: the most two feasible relaxation techniques revealed by step 1 were quantitatively tested in a sample of 65 medical health workers in terms of efficacy, no space limitation, no time limitation, no body position requirement, no environment limitation to be done, easiness to learn, simplicity, convenience, practicality, and acceptance.
Kegel exercise and autogenic relaxation were the most feasible techniques according to step 1. In step 2, Kegel exercise outperformed autogenic relaxation on all the 10 dimensions among the 65 participants while wearing medical protective equipment (efficacy: 24 v. 15, no space limitation: 30 v. 4, no time limitation: 31 v. 4, no body position requirement: 26 v. 4, no environment limitation: 30 v. 11, easiness to learn: 28 v. 5, simplicity: 29 v. 7, convenience: 29 v. 4, practicality: 30 v. 14, acceptance: 32 v. 6).
Kegel exercise seems a promising self-relaxation technique for first-line medical health workers while wearing medical protective equipment among COVID-19 pandemic.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. Recent evidence has suggested the protective effects of honey consumption against the metabolic syndrome, but the association between honey intake and NAFLD is still unclear. We investigated how the consumption frequency of honey was associated with NAFLD in the general population. This was a cross-sectional study of 21 979 adults aged 20–90 years. NAFLD was diagnosed based on the ultrasound-diagnosed fatty liver without significant alcohol intake and other liver diseases. Diet information, including consumption frequency of honey, was assessed by a validated 100-item FFQ. OR with 95 % CI were calculated by the binary logistic regression model, adjusting for confounding factors identified by the directed acyclic graph. Overall, 6513 adults (29·6 %) had NAFLD. Compared with participants consuming ≤1 time/week of honey, the multivariable OR of NAFLD were 0·86 (95 % CI 0·77, 0·97) for 2–6 times/week and 1·10 (95 % CI 0·95, 1·27) for ≥1 times/d (Pfor trend = 0·90). The results were generally similar in subgroups of BMI at a cut-point of 24·0 kg/m2 (Pfor interaction = 0·10). In this large-scale study, consuming honey 2–6 times/week was inversely associated with NAFLD, whereas consuming honey ≥1 times/d had no association with NAFLD. These results need replication in other large-scale prospective studies.
Impact of microspheres on liquid surfaces is a universal phenomenon in nature and in industrial processes. However, most relevant studies have mainly focused on the sphere's vertical impact. Herein, we present the first observation on the oblique impact of microspheres on the surface of quiescent liquid using high-speed microphotography. The sphere motion and liquid surface distortion after the oblique impact are basically different from those after a vertical impact. The sphere rotates and its trajectory deviates from the impact direction during the oblique impact process, while the non-axisymmetric liquid surface distortion experiences an evolution from half-cavity to full-cavity patterns. The dependence of motions of the sphere and the three-phase contact line on the impact angle
and Weber number are investigated, and the scaling laws for the sphere's penetration time and penetration depth are given. We provide a phase diagram with respect to the Weber number and impact angle that describes the observed impact modes of submergence and oscillation, which shows that the critical Weber number between two impact modes increases when the impact angle decreases. Additionally, a scaling model is established based on energy balance to distinguish different impact modes. The model indicates that the critical Weber number for the microsphere's oblique impact is equal to
times that for vertical impact, agreeing well with the experimental results.
To describe the laboratory findings of cases of death with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and to establish a scoring system for predicting death, we conducted this single-centre, retrospective, observational study including 336 adult patients (≥18 years old) with severe or critically ill COVID-19 admitted in two wards of Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology in Wuhan, who had definite outcomes (death or discharge) between 1 February 2020 and 13 March 2020. Single variable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to identify mortality-related factors. We combined multiple factors to predict mortality, which was validated by receiver operating characteristic curves. As a result, in a total of 336 patients, 34 (10.1%) patients died during hospitalisation. Through multivariable logistic regression, we found that decreased lymphocyte ratio (Lymr, %) (odds ratio, OR 0.574, P < 0.001), elevated blood urea nitrogen (BUN) (OR 1.513, P = 0.009), and raised D-dimer (DD) (OR 1.334, P = 0.002) at admission were closely related to death. The combined prediction model was developed by these factors with a sensitivity of 100.0% and specificity of 97.2%. In conclusion, decreased Lymr, elevated BUN, and raised DD were found to be in association with death outcomes in critically ill patients with COVID-19. A scoring system was developed to predict the clinical outcome of these patients.
To identify the association of the glucokinase gene (GCK) rs4607517 polymorphism with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and determine whether sweets consumption could interact with the polymorphism on GDM in Chinese women.
We conducted a case–control study at a hospital including 1015 participants (562 GDM cases and 453 controls). We collected the data of pre-pregnancy BMI, sweets consumption and performed genotyping of the GCK rs4607517 polymorphism. Logistic regression was performed to test the association between the rs4607517 polymorphism and GDM, and the stratified analyses by sweets consumption were conducted, using an additive genetic model.
A case–control study of women at a hospital in Beijing, China.
One thousand and fifteen Chinese women.
The GCK rs4607517 A allele was significantly associated with GDM (OR 1·35, 95 % CI 1·03, 1·77; P = 0·028). Furthermore, stratified analyses showed that the A allele increased the risk of GDM only in women who had a habitual consumption of sweet foods (sweets consumption ≥ once per week) (OR 1·61, 95 % CI 1·17, 2·21; P = 0·003). Significant interaction on GDM was found between the rs4607517 A allele and sweets consumption (P = 0·004).
This study for the first time reported the interaction between the GCK rs4607517 polymorphism and sweets consumption on GDM. The results provided novel evidence for risk assessment and personalised prevention of GDM.
Given recent changes in the epidemiology of Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) and prevention efforts, we investigated temporal changes over a period of 11 years (2006–2016) in incidence and risk factors for CDI.
Retrospective matched case-control study.
Pediatric and adult inpatients (n = 694,849) discharged from 3 hospitals (tertiary and quaternary care, community, and pediatric) in a large, academic health center in New York City.
Risk factors were identified in cases and controls matched by length of stay at a ratio of 1:4. A Cochran–Armitage or Mann-Kendall test was used to investigate trends of incidence and risk factors.
Of 694,849 inpatients, 6,038 (0.87%) had CDI: 44% of these cases were hospital acquired (HA-CDI) and 56% were community acquired (CA-CDI). We observed temporal downward trends in HA-CDI (−0.03% per year) and upward trends in CA-CDI (+0.04% per year). Over time, antibiotics were administered to more patients (+3% per year); the use of high-risk antibiotics declined (–1.2% per year); and antibiotic duration increased in patients with HA-CDI (+4.4% per year). Fewer proton-pump inhibitors and more histamine-2 blockers were used (−3.8% and +7.3% per year, respectively; all Ptrend <.05).
Although the incidence of HA-CDI decreased over time, CA-CDI simultaneously increased. Continued efforts to assure judicious use of antibiotics in inpatient and community settings is clearly vital. Measuring the actual the level of exposure of an antibiotic (incidence density) should be used for ongoing surveillance and assessment.
Heterogeneous magnesium matrix nanocomposites (Hetero-Mg-NCs) exhibited excellent strength–toughness synergy, but their damage behavior and toughness mechanism lacked of investigation. Here, atomic force microscopy was first employed to characterize the microstructure evolution and damage behavior of the Hetero-Mg-NCs after indentation. The heterogeneous structure comprised of pure Mg areas (soft phase) and Mg nanocomposite areas (hard phase) was revealed by the electrostatic force microscopy. Furthermore, the surface morphology and cracks of the deformed area were investigated with high resolution. The results indicated the soft phase undertook most of the deformation and played an important role in capturing and blunting the crack.
In this study, the glass forming ability, thermal stability, and room-temperature mechanical behavior of a high Zr-containing Zr71Cu11Ni10.5Al7Ti0.5 bulk glassy alloy were investigated. The glassy alloy exhibits a high glass-forming ability with a critical casting diameter of 5 mm using copper mold injection casting, and its critical cooling rate is estimated to be smaller than 40 K/s. A small kinetic fragility index m of 32 indicates its good thermodynamic stability and glass-forming ability. Compressive tests indicate that the glassy alloy displays a significant average plastic strain of 12.3%, a high fracture strength of 1592 MPa, and Young's modulus of 74.5 GPa. The good ductility is attributed to the introduction of more free volume and local compositional inhomogeneity with increasing Zr addition. This finding may provide useful guidelines for the development of novel high Zr-containing glassy alloys.
We aimed to evaluate the relationship of plasma Mg with the risk of new-onset hyperuricaemia and examine any possible effect modifiers in hypertensive patients. This is a post hoc analysis of the Uric acid (UA) Sub-study of the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT). A total of 1685 participants were included in the present study. The main outcome was new-onset hyperuricaemia defined as a UA concentration ≥417 μmol/l in men or ≥357 μmol/l in women. The secondary outcome was a change in UA concentration defined as UA at the exit visit minus that at baseline. During a median follow-up duration of 4·3 years, new-onset hyperuricaemia occurred in 290 (17·2 %) participants. There was a significantly inverse relation of plasma Mg with the risk of new-onset hyperuricaemia (per sd increment; OR 0·85; 95 % CI 0·74, 0·99) and change in UA levels (per sd increment; β −3·96 μmol/l; 95 % CI −7·14, −0·79). Consistently, when plasma Mg was analysed as tertiles, a significantly lower risk of new-onset hyperuricaemia (OR 0·67; 95 % CI 0·48, 0·95) and less increase in UA levels (β −8·35 μmol/l; 95 % CI −16·12, −0·58) were found among participants in tertile 3 (≥885·5 μmol/l) compared with those in tertile 1 (<818·9 μmol/l). Similar trends were found in males and females. Higher plasma Mg levels were associated with a decreased risk of new-onset hyperuricaemia in hypertensive adults.
Emerging evidences indicate that the alteration of interhemispheric functional coordination may be involved in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD). In present study, we aim to explore the potential marker by using the voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) approach, which may be contributing to predict the clinical prognosis in MDD.
Eighty-two MDD patients and 50 normal control (NC) subjects participated in this study. We divided the MDD group into unremitted and remitted group according to the reduction rate of Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD) within 2 weeks.
The study detected significantly decreased VMHC in bilateral precuneus (pCu), inferior temporal gyrus (ITG) and increased VMHC in middle frontal gyrus (MFG) and caudate nucleus when compared remitted depression (RD) group to unremitted depression (URD) group. Meanwhile, when compared with NC group, the URD group presented reduced VMHC in bilateral cerebellum anterior lobe, thalamus and postcentral gyrus. Furthermore, the VHMC in media frontal gyrus, postcentral gyrus and precentral gyrus were significantly decreased in RD group. Correlation analysis suggested that reduced VMHC in bilateral pCu was negatively correlated with the baseline HAMD score of URD (r = −0.325, P = 0.041). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve indicated that three regional VMHC changes could identify depressed patient with poorer treatment response: ITG [area under curve (AUC) = 0.699, P = 0.002, 95% CI = 0.586–0.812], MFG (AUC = 0.692, P = 0.003, 95% CI = 0.580–0.805), pCu (AUC = 0.714, P = 0.001, 95% CI = 0.603–0.825).
The current study combined with previous evidence indicates that the subdued intrinsic interhemispheric functional connectivity might represents a novel neural trait involved in the pathophysiology of MDD.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.