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On January 13, 2018, a false ballistic missile alert that lasted 38 minutes was issued across Oahu, Hawaii, United States. As a result of a system failure, an erroneous text message was sent that stated, “Ballistic missile threat inbound to Hawaii. Seek immediate shelter.”
The research team wanted to know the degree of reported anxiety triggered by the event and if knowledge, attitudes, or behaviors for individual/family emergency preparedness (EP) changed post-event.
A 50-question survey that asked about individual and family EP pre- and post-event, and the level of anxiety triggered by the event, was administered to a convenience sample of full-time adult residents of Oahu. The study was conducted over a 6-8 week period post-event. Statistical analysis was used to identify factors associated with an increasing level of EP post-event and reported event-triggered anxiety.
209 participants completed the survey (29% male, 71% female) with about one half living with children. One third were essential workers. Key factors that correlate with increasing various areas of EP post-event include higher educational, receipt of electronic emergency alerts, prior emergency training, and higher reported connectedness to community. Those with higher event anxiety were more likely to develop and practice an EP plan post-event, encourage EP with friends, and report a higher level of community connectedness. The elderly were more likely to have higher levels of EP before and after the event but were less likely to receive emergency alert notifications or have EP training.
While the event was very unfortunate, it did seem to stimulate citizen disaster EP among some groups. Additional research should explore the utility of increasing EP education for communities immediately after disasters, tailoring this education for groups, and targeting the elderly for participation in the emergency alert system.
Given its diverse disease courses and symptom presentations, multiple phenotype dimensions with different biological underpinnings are expected with bipolar disorders (BPs). In this study, we aimed to identify lifetime BP psychopathology dimensions. We also explored the differing associations with bipolar I (BP-I) and bipolar II (BP-II) disorders.
We included a total of 307 subjects with BPs in the analysis. For the factor analysis, we chose six variables related to clinical courses, 29 indicators covering lifetime symptoms of mood episodes, and 6 specific comorbid conditions. To determine the relationships among the identified phenotypic dimensions and their effects on differentiating BP subtypes, we applied structural equation modeling.
We selected a six-factor solution through scree plot, Velicer's minimum average partial test, and face validity evaluations; the six factors were cyclicity, depression, atypical vegetative symptoms, elation, psychotic/irritable mania, and comorbidity. In the path analysis, five factors excluding atypical vegetative symptoms were associated with one another. Cyclicity, depression, and comorbidity had positive associations, and they correlated negatively with psychotic/irritable mania; elation showed positive correlations with cyclicity and psychotic/irritable mania. Depression, cyclicity, and comorbidity were stronger in BP-II than in BP-I, and they contributed significantly to the distinction between the two disorders.
We identified six phenotype dimensions; in addition to symptom features of manic and depressive episodes, various comorbidities and high cyclicity constructed separate dimensions. Except for atypical vegetative symptoms, all factors showed a complex interdependency and played roles in discriminating BP-II from BP-I.
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