The changes in milk fat globules and fat globule surface proteins during concentration of whole milk using a pilot-scale multiple-effect evaporator were examined. The effects of heat treatment of milk at 95 °C for 20 s, prior to evaporation, on fat globule size and the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) proteins were also determined. In both non-preheated and preheated whole milk, the size of milk fat globules decreased while the amount of total surface proteins at the fat globules increased as the milk passed through each effect of the evaporator. In non-preheated samples, the amount of caseins at the surface of fat globules increased markedly during evaporation with a relatively small increase in whey proteins. In preheated samples, both caseins and whey proteins were observed at the surface of fat globules and the amounts of these proteins increased during subsequent steps of evaporation. The major original MFGM proteins, xanthine oxidase, butyrophilin, PAS 6 and PAS 7, did not change during evaporation, however, PAS 6 and PAS 7 decreased during preheating. These results indicate that the proteins from the skim milk were adsorbed onto the fat globule surface when the milk fat globules were disrupted during evaporation.