To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
We describe an ultra-wide-bandwidth, low-frequency receiver recently installed on the Parkes radio telescope. The receiver system provides continuous frequency coverage from 704 to 4032 MHz. For much of the band (
), the system temperature is approximately 22 K and the receiver system remains in a linear regime even in the presence of strong mobile phone transmissions. We discuss the scientific and technical aspects of the new receiver, including its astronomical objectives, as well as the feed, receiver, digitiser, and signal processor design. We describe the pipeline routines that form the archive-ready data products and how those data files can be accessed from the archives. The system performance is quantified, including the system noise and linearity, beam shape, antenna efficiency, polarisation calibration, and timing stability.
The primary objectives of the ExoplANETS-A project are to: establish new knowledge on exoplanet atmospheres; establish new insight on influence of the host star on the planet atmosphere; disseminate knowledge, using online, web-based platforms. The project, funded under the EU’s Horizon-2020 programme, started in January 2018 and has a duration ∼3 years. We present an overview of the project, the activities concerning the host stars and some early results on the host stars.
The Murchison Widefield Array, and its recently developed Voltage Capture System, facilitates extending the low-frequency range of pulsar observations at high-time and -frequency resolution in the Southern Hemisphere, providing further information about pulsars and the ISM. We present the results of an initial time-resolved census of known pulsars using the Murchison Widefield Array. To significantly reduce the processing load, we incoherently sum the detected powers from the 128 Murchison Widefield Array tiles, which yields ~10% of the attainable sensitivity of the coherent sum. This preserves the large field-of-view (~450 deg2 at 185 MHz), allowing multiple pulsars to be observed simultaneously. We developed a WIde-field Pulsar Pipeline that processes the data from each observation and automatically folds every known pulsar located within the beam. We have detected 50 pulsars to date, 6 of which are millisecond pulsars. This is consistent with our expectation, given the telescope sensitivity and the sky coverage of the processed data (~17 000 deg2). For 10 pulsars, we present the lowest frequency detections published. For a subset of the pulsars, we present multi-frequency pulse profiles by combining our data with published profiles from other telescopes. Since the Murchison Widefield Array is a low-frequency precursor to the Square Kilometre Array, we use our census results to forecast that a survey using the low-frequency component of the Square Kilometre Array Phase 1 can potentially detect around 9 400 pulsars.
The Taipan galaxy survey (hereafter simply ‘Taipan’) is a multi-object spectroscopic survey starting in 2017 that will cover 2π steradians over the southern sky (δ ≲ 10°, |b| ≳ 10°), and obtain optical spectra for about two million galaxies out to z < 0.4. Taipan will use the newly refurbished 1.2-m UK Schmidt Telescope at Siding Spring Observatory with the new TAIPAN instrument, which includes an innovative ‘Starbugs’ positioning system capable of rapidly and simultaneously deploying up to 150 spectroscopic fibres (and up to 300 with a proposed upgrade) over the 6° diameter focal plane, and a purpose-built spectrograph operating in the range from 370 to 870 nm with resolving power R ≳ 2000. The main scientific goals of Taipan are (i) to measure the distance scale of the Universe (primarily governed by the local expansion rate, H0) to 1% precision, and the growth rate of structure to 5%; (ii) to make the most extensive map yet constructed of the total mass distribution and motions in the local Universe, using peculiar velocities based on improved Fundamental Plane distances, which will enable sensitive tests of gravitational physics; and (iii) to deliver a legacy sample of low-redshift galaxies as a unique laboratory for studying galaxy evolution as a function of dark matter halo and stellar mass and environment. The final survey, which will be completed within 5 yrs, will consist of a complete magnitude-limited sample (i ⩽ 17) of about 1.2 × 106 galaxies supplemented by an extension to higher redshifts and fainter magnitudes (i ⩽ 18.1) of a luminous red galaxy sample of about 0.8 × 106 galaxies. Observations and data processing will be carried out remotely and in a fully automated way, using a purpose-built automated ‘virtual observer’ software and an automated data reduction pipeline. The Taipan survey is deliberately designed to maximise its legacy value by complementing and enhancing current and planned surveys of the southern sky at wavelengths from the optical to the radio; it will become the primary redshift and optical spectroscopic reference catalogue for the local extragalactic Universe in the southern sky for the coming decade.
Radio continuum surveys are equally sensitive to all pulsars, not affected by dispersion measure smearing, scattering or orbital modulation of spin periods, and therefore allow us to search for extreme pulsars, such as sub-millisecond pulsars, pulsar-black hole systems and pulsars in the Galactic Centre. As we move towards the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) era, searching for pulsars in continuum images will complement conventional pulsar searches, and make it possible to find extreme objects.
Over the last decade or so, it has become clear that pulsars exhibit sudden and significant changes in their spin properties. At the same time, a better understanding of the geometry of young and older pulsars, is providing clues about the long-term evolution of the magnetic inclination angle. In this talk, we present a simple simulation of the pulsar population that takes into account current observational facts. We show how, with very few assumptions, the observed P-Ṗ diagram can be reproduced for a synthesized population. The implications are interesting and testable.
Pulsar polarization has been a fruitful area of study since the first discovery of pulsars 50 years ago. Polarization gives information on the geometry of the star, the location of the radio emission in the magnetosphere, the physics behind the radio emission mechanism and a plethora of phenomenology. Here, I will restrict myself to a brief outline of recent work in pulsar polarization using observations taken with the Parkes radio telescope over the past decade.
We present low-frequency spectral energy distributions of 60 known radio pulsars observed with the Murchison Widefield Array telescope. We searched the GaLactic and Extragalactic All-sky Murchison Widefield Array survey images for 200-MHz continuum radio emission at the position of all pulsars in the Australia Telescope National Facility (ATNF) pulsar catalogue. For the 60 confirmed detections, we have measured flux densities in 20 × 8 MHz bands between 72 and 231 MHz. We compare our results to existing measurements and show that the Murchison Widefield Array flux densities are in good agreement.
A recent study has indicated that a substantial fraction of young pulsars born in supernovae have travelled outside the boundaries of their corresponding shell supernova remnants. A simple model suggests that this should not be the case, implying either that some postulated pulsar/remnant associations are false, or that pulsars are particularly difficult to detect until they have emerged from their remnants.
We summarise the proceedings of a workshop on ‘Supernova Remnants, Pulsars and the Interstellar Medium’ which was held at the Special Research Centre for Theoretical Astrophysics at the University of Sydney on 18 and 19 March 1999.
Using the formalism of Hamaker, Bregman & Sault (1996), I derive a method for the polarisation calibration of observations made with a single radio telescope. This method is particularly appropriate for observations of pulsars, where the sign and magnitude of the circular polarisation are useful for understanding the emission processes at work. I apply the method to observations of PSR J1359–6038 made using the multibeam receiver on the Parkes radio telescope.
The Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) will give us an unprecedented opportunity to investigate the transient sky at radio wavelengths. In this paper we present VAST, an ASKAP survey for Variables and Slow Transients. VAST will exploit the wide-field survey capabilities of ASKAP to enable the discovery and investigation of variable and transient phenomena from the local to the cosmological, including flare stars, intermittent pulsars, X-ray binaries, magnetars, extreme scattering events, interstellar scintillation, radio supernovae, and orphan afterglows of gamma-ray bursts. In addition, it will allow us to probe unexplored regions of parameter space where new classes of transient sources may be detected. In this paper we review the known radio transient and variable populations and the current results from blind radio surveys. We outline a comprehensive program based on a multi-tiered survey strategy to characterise the radio transient sky through detection and monitoring of transient and variable sources on the ASKAP imaging timescales of 5 s and greater. We also present an analysis of the expected source populations that we will be able to detect with VAST.
Recently, PSR J0738-4042 has grown a bright new emission component in its average pulse profile. Using data from Parkes and HartRAO, spanning back to the early 1980s, and applying statistical techniques to model the pulse profile shape with time, we have uncovered unexpected long-term variability, which is very well correlated with changes in the spin-down rate. We present these findings in the context of a growing population of radio-variable pulsars with correlated timing irregularities, including the intermittent pulsars, state-changing pulsars and other individual examples.
We collected data on the distribution of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) and minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) in the Bay of Fundy, Canada from a whale-watching vessel during commercial tours between July and September 2002. A single observer recorded the positions, species, numbers and surface activity of whales encountered during boat tours. We controlled for biased search effort by calculating sightings rates for both species in cells measuring 2′ latitude by 2′ longitude throughout the study area. Sightings rates were calculated by dividing the number of sightings of fin and minke whales in each cell by the number of visits by the tour boat to that cell. We used generalized additive models and generalized linear models to examine the influence of benthic topography on whale distribution patterns. Models showed a non-linear relationship for minke whale sighting rates with increasing benthic slopes and a linear relationship for minke and fin whale sightings rates with increasing water depth. Sightings of minkes were concentrated in areas subject to tidal wakes near the northern tips of Grand Manan and Campobello Island. Fin whales were also found off the northern tip of Grand Manan but sighting rates for this species were highest in areas with less benthic sloping topography adjacent to the relatively deep Owen Basin. Foraging was recorded during 87% of all whale encounters and our results indicate that whale distribution in this area is likely to be influenced by depth, bottom topography and fine scale oceanographic features that facilitate foraging.
Few studies of the neighbourhood effect in British voting patterns have addressed the important issue of spatial scale: at what level do these effects operate (if any), and do they operate simultaneously at more than one? Using the British Household Panel Study data, to which information on the characteristics of the population in the areas around each individual respondent's home have been added, this article finds significant differences in the propensity of individuals to vote either Conservative or Liberal Democrat rather than Labour at two neighbourhood levels as well as at the regional level.
We briefly review observational manifestations of pulsars with giant pulse emission and consider quasi-giant pulse phenomena in other pulsars. We argue that power-law statistics give the best definition of giant pulses. Finally, we speculate as to the origin of the giant pulses and a possible link with high energy emission.