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Despite global deterioration of coral reef health, not all reef-associated organisms are in decline. Bioeroding sponges are thought to be largely resistant to the factors that stress and kill corals, and are increasing in abundance on many reefs. However, there is a paucity of information on how environmental factors influence spatial variation in the distribution of these sponges, and how they might be affected by different stressors. We aimed to identify the factors that explained differences in bioeroding sponge abundance and assemblage composition, and to determine whether bioeroding sponges benefit from the same environmental conditions that can contribute towards coral mortality. Abundance surveys were conducted in the Wakatobi region of Indonesia on reefs characterized by different biotic and abiotic conditions. Bioeroding sponges occupied an average of 8.9% of available dead substrate and variation in abundance and assemblage composition was primarily attributed to differences in the availability of dead substrate. Our results imply that if dead substrate availability increases as a consequence of coral mortality, bioeroding sponge abundance is also likely to increase. However, bioeroding sponge abundance was lowest on a sedimented reef, despite abundant dead substrate. This suggests that not all forms of coral mortality will benefit all bioeroding sponge species, and sediment-degraded reefs are likely to be dominated by a few resilient bioeroding sponge species. Overall, we demonstrate the importance of understanding the drivers of bioeroding sponge abundance and assemblage composition in order to predict possible impacts of different stressors on reefs communities.
Was there a “Q community”? There are many who think that any quest for a “Q community” is a fool's errand. In this paper, I revisit this vexing question by focusing on several distinctive textual coordinates with which we can map Q's author within the social, textual, and theological landscape(s) of Second Temple Judaism. Since the author of Q was capable of crafting innovative scriptural allusions and adapting inherited Jesus traditions, I suggest that Q is not an isolated “Galilean” phenomenon but a textual production that combines Galilean Jesus traditions in conversation with contemporary Jewish apocalyptic traditions and can be located alongside the wider “Essenic” networks that pre-dated and co-existed with the Palestinian Jewish Jesus movement.
There is a need for clinical tools to identify cultural issues in diagnostic assessment.
To assess the feasibility, acceptability and clinical utility of the DSM-5 Cultural Formulation Interview (CFI) in routine clinical practice.
Mixed-methods evaluation of field trial data from six countries. The CFI was administered to diagnostically diverse psychiatric out-patients during a diagnostic interview. In post-evaluation sessions, patients and clinicians completed debriefing qualitative interviews and Likert-scale questionnaires. The duration of CFI administration and the full diagnostic session were monitored.
Mixed-methods data from 318 patients and 75 clinicians found the CFI feasible, acceptable and useful. Clinician feasibility ratings were significantly lower than patient ratings and other clinician-assessed outcomes. After administering one CFI, however, clinician feasibility ratings improved significantly and subsequent interviews required less time.
The CFI was included in DSM-5 as a feasible, acceptable and useful cultural assessment tool.
The Gospel of the Ebionites is a ‘text’ that only exists as fragments cited in and extrapolated from the heresiological writings of Epiphanius (Pan. 30). Like Recognitions 1.27–71, the Gospel of the Ebionites is one of a number of second- and third-century Jewish Christian sources, texts and traditions alleging that Jesus rejected animal sacrifice. In this article, I seek to review the history of research on this particular text and tradition and explore its significance as a case study in the use of non-canonical gospel traditions in New Testament studies.
Most Jesus specialists agree that the Temple incident led directly to Jesus' arrest, but the precise relationship between Jesus and the Temple's administration remains unclear. Jesus and the Temple examines this relationship, exploring the reinterpretation of Torah observance and traditional Temple practices that are widely considered central components of the early Jesus movement. Challenging a growing tendency in contemporary scholarship to assume that the earliest Christians had an almost uniformly positive view of the Temple's sacrificial system, Simon J. Joseph addresses the ambiguous, inconsistent, and contradictory views on sacrifice and the Temple in the New Testament. This volume fills a significant gap in the literature on sacrifice in Jewish Christianity. It introduces a new hypothesis positing Jesus' enactment of a program of radically nonviolent eschatological restoration, an orientation that produced Jesus' conflicts with his contemporaries and inspired the first attributions of sacrificial language to his death.