Microprobe two-step laser mass spectrometry (μL2MS) is a new mass spectrometric method in which the two essential steps of any mass spectrometric analysis, vaporization and ionization, are carried out using two independent laser sources. In the first step, the output of a pulsed infrared laser is focused on the sample to cause rapid heating in the spot area illuminated, which is typically 40 μm by 40 μm. In the second step, the output of a pulsed ultraviolet laser causes (1+1) resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) of those desorbed neutral molecules that (1) are able to absorb this UV wavelength and (2) whose ionization potential is less than the energy of two photons of this UV wavelength. The resulting ions are then mass analyzed in a reflectron time-of-flight apparatus. Under suitable conditions fragmentation can be avoided in both the vaporization and ionization steps so that μL2MS can be applied to the analysis of a mixture of molecules. Applications of μL2MS to meteorite samples are presented as a means of detecting trace amounts of certain organic molecules present in complex materials without prior sample preparation, extraction, purification, and separation steps. Moreover, this analysis can be carried out with micrometer spatial resolution so that in favorable cases the presence or absence of certain molecules can be correlated to mineralogical features of the sample.