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To develop consensus recommendations for training future clinician educators (CEs) in emergency medicine (EM).
A panel of EM education leaders was assembled from across Canada and met regularly by teleconference over the course of 1 year. Recommendations for CE training were drafted based on the panel’s experience, a literature review, and a survey of current and past EM education leaders in Canada. Feedback was sought from attendees at the Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians (CAEP) annual academic symposium. Recommendations were distributed to the society’s Academic Section for further feedback and updated by a consensus of the expert panel.
Recommendations were categorized for one of three audiences: 1) Future CEs; 2) Academic departments and divisions (AD&D) that support training to fulfill their education leadership goals; and 3) The CAEP Academic Section. Advanced medical education training is recommended for any emergency physician or resident who pursues an education leadership role. Individuals should seek out mentorship in making decisions about career opportunities and training options. AD&D should regularly perform a needs assessment of their future CE needs and identify and encourage potential individuals who fulfill education leadership roles. AD&D should develop training opportunities at their institution, provide support to complete this training, and advocate for the recognition of education scholarship in their institutional promotions process. The CAEP Academic Section should support mentorship of future CEs on a national scale.
These recommendations serve as a framework for training and supporting the next generation of Canadian EM medical educators.
We sought to conduct a major objective of the CAEP Academic Section, an environmental scan of the academic emergency medicine programs across the 17 Canadian medical schools.
We developed an 84-question questionnaire, which was distributed to academic heads. The responses were validated by phone by the lead author to ensure that the questions were answered completely and consistently. Details of pediatric emergency medicine units were excluded from the scan.
At eight of 17 universities, emergency medicine has full departmental status and at two it has no official academic status. Canadian academic emergency medicine is practiced at 46 major teaching hospitals and 13 specialized pediatric hospitals. Another 69 Canadian hospital EDs regularly take clinical clerks and emergency medicine residents. There are 31 full professors of emergency medicine in Canada. Teaching programs are strong with clerkships offered at 16/17 universities, CCFP(EM) programs at 17/17, and RCPSC residency programs at 14/17. Fourteen sites have at least one physician with a Master’s degree in education. There are 55 clinical researchers with salary support at 13 universities. Sixteen sites have published peer-reviewed papers in the past five years, ranging from four to 235 per site. Annual budgets range from $200,000 to $5,900,000.
This comprehensive review of academic activities in emergency medicine across Canada identifies areas of strengths as well as opportunities for improvement. CAEP and the Academic Section hope we can ultimately improve ED patient care by sharing best academic practices and becoming better teachers, educators, and researchers.
This chapter highlights some of the changes occurring in services around the globe in the context of and as a result of political and economic changes. Globalization might lead to a globalized culture in which cultural values become more homogenized and cultural relativism gives way to a uniform view. There is no doubt that globalization has led to an increase in urbanization, which by itself brings a number of problems. As a result of internal migration from rural to urban areas, overcrowding may result and social support networks will change. In many countries, for example in India, the practice of medicine and delivery of health care has been brought under consumer legislation, where patients are seen as consumers and have no rights of protection as consumers. Consumerism can affect health care as a whole or psychotherapy or pharmacotherapy.
We present the case of a 20-year-old man who was stabbed in the left chest and was diagnosed with a large pericardial effusion by focused emergency department (ED) ultrasonography. After placement of a left chest tube for presumed tension pneumothorax, the pericardial effusion had resolved. The patient's postinjury course was complicated by pericarditis and recurrent tamponade, which required repeated pericardiocentesis for management. This case illustrates the role of focused ED ultrasonography for diagnosis of pericardial effusion in penetrating trauma and the potential for delayed pericardial effusion and tamponade in such patients. Although the pathophysiology of delayed pericardial effusion is unclear, autoimmune postpericardiotomy syndrome has been proposed as the cause of this rare condition. Our case underscores the importance of close monitoring of patients with known or suspected pericardial injuries due to their potential for the development of lifethreatening complications.
This Summary for Policymakers presents key findings from the Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation (SREX). The SREX approaches the topic by assessing the scientific literature on issues that range from the relationship between climate change and extreme weather and climate events (‘climate extremes’) to the implications of these events for society and sustainable development. The assessment concerns the interaction of climatic, environmental, and human factors that can lead to impacts and disasters, options for managing the risks posed by impacts and disasters, and the important role that non-climatic factors play in determining impacts. Box SPM.1 defines concepts central to the SREX.
The character and severity of impacts from climate extremes depend not only on the extremes themselves but also on exposure and vulnerability. In this report, adverse impacts are considered disasters when they produce widespread damage and cause severe alterations in the normal functioning of communities or societies. Climate extremes, exposure, and vulnerability are influenced by a wide range of factors, including anthropogenic climate change, natural climate variability, and socioeconomic development (Figure SPM.1). Disaster risk management and adaptation to climate change focus on reducing exposure and vulnerability and increasing resilience to the potential adverse impacts of climate extremes, even though risks cannot fully be eliminated (Figure SPM.2). Although mitigation of climate change is not the focus of this report, adaptation and mitigation can complement each other and together can significantly reduce the risks of climate change. [SYR AR4, 5.3]
Toxoplasma antibodies were absent from the sera of 32 adult Hong Kong women and were present in only two of 35 adult males and five of 46 meat workers, an overall incidence of 6·2%. This is the lowest incidence recorded in a large tropical city and lower than the incidence reported for most areas of the world, whether rural or urban. The reasons for this are unknown. Of 31 sera from swine imported from China and slaughtered in Hong Kong, 22 (71%) were positive for toxoplasma antibodies.
Many emergency department (ED) visits are non-urgent. Postulated reasons for these visits include lack of access to family physicians, convenience and 24/7 access, perceived need for investigations or treatment not available elsewhere, and as a mechanism for expedited referral to other specialists. We conducted a patient survey to determine why non-urgent patients use our tertiary care ED. Our primary objective was to determine how often the lack of a family physician was associated with non-urgent ED use.
The survey was administered to Canadian Emergency Department Triage and Acuity Scale (CTAS) Level IV and V patients who attended the ED of the Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre in Halifax, NS, from March 7 to March 13, 2005.
Of the 352 eligible patients, 235 completed the survey (response rate, 67%). Fifty-six percent (132/235) had an acute medical problem of less than 48 hours, including 48% (114/235) with a recent injury. Thirty-four percent (82/235) had been referred to the ED, 49% (114/235) believed they required a specific service that was unavailable elsewhere (e.g., radiology, suturing, casting) and 43% (100/235) presented because of self-perceived urgency of their condition. Eighty-four percent (198/235) had a family physician; 23% (55/235) used the ED because of limited access to theirfamily physician and 3% (6/235) used the ED because they did not have a family physician.
In this setting, most non-urgent ED visits involved patients who required a specific service offered by the ED, patients who believed their condition was urgent, or patients who were referred from the community to the ED. From a patient perspective, relatively few visits would be considered inappropriate. Lack of a family physician was not associated with non-urgent ED use; however, inability to obtain timely access to the FP was a factor in one-quarter of cases.
Cathodic arc deposition combined with macroparticle filtering of the plasma is an efficient and versatile method for the deposition of amorphous hard carbon films of high quality. The film properties can be tailored over a broad range by varying the energy of the carbon ions incident upon the substrate and upon the growing film by applying a pulsed bias technique. By varying the bias voltage during the deposition process specific properties of the interface, bulk film and top surface layer can be obtained. We report on nanoindentation and transmission electron microscopy studies as well as stress measurements of cathodic-arc amorphous hard carbon films deposited with varied bias voltage. The investigations were performed on multilayers consisting of alternating hard and soft amorphous carbon.