Heat-induced gelation of milk was studied using both rheological and structural techniques. The sample was a conventional skim milk, concentrated with an ultrafiltration membrane, which formed gels when heated at appropriate pH. We investigated some factors that are considered to affect the gelation, such as concentration, pH and rennet treatment. The gelation process was monitored with a high precision oscillatory shear rheometer and the structure of gels was evaluated with quasi-elastic laser light scattering. From these results the gelation and phase separation behaviour were determined. By combining the results for different concentrations a phase diagram was obtained, which indicated that skim milk had a two-phase region on the higher temperature side. The effects of pH and rennet treatment were also evaluated with the aid of this phase diagram. The results were discussed on the basis of concepts of the phase behaviour of polymers, which were successfully developed in polymer physics.