Fifteen species of Usnea are recorded from Iberian cork-oak forests: U. ceratina, U. comma, U. dasaea, U. esperantiana, U. flammea, U. fulvoreagens, U. glabrata, U. hirta, U. mutabilis, U. rubicunda, U. subcornuta, U. subfloridana U. subscabrosa, U. substerilis and U. wasmuthii. A key for these species is provided. Details of morphology, chemistry, distribution, ecology and taxonomy are discussed. Usnea dasaea is reported as new to the Iberian Peninsula. New chemotypes of U. fulvoreagens (with squamatic acid) and U. wasmuthii (with psoromic acid) have been identified. Distribution maps of U. dasaeaand U. subcornuta in Europe are presented. A new combination, Usnea subfloridana subsp. praetervisa (Asahina) P. Clerc, is proposed.