The evolutionary history of the living African rodent families is a topic of considerable debate, yet it is generally agreed that the modern cane rats (Thryonomys Fitzinger, 1867) and dassie rats (Petromus Smith, 1831) have an evolutionary history within the infraorder Phiomorpha (e.g., Wood, 1968). Phiomorphs possess hystricognathous mandibular morphology, multiserial incisor enamel, and hystricomorphous attachment of the masseteric musculature (e.g., Lavocat, 1978; Holroyd, 1994). In his initial work on the group, Wood (1968) placed all phiomorph taxa into a single family, and named a handful of morphologically diverse species based mainly on size. Lavocat (1978) later revised the taxonomy of the group, raising many of the differences among species to the family level. More recently, Holroyd (1994) observed that these contrasting views likely stemmed from the fact that Wood's phiomorph work emphasized the overall similarity of Paleogene specimens from the Fayum of Egypt, whereas Lavocat endeavored to explain the diverse Miocene rodent faunas from East Africa, envisioning that each of the Miocene forms had an ancestor among the Paleogene taxa. In this paper we adopt Holroyd's (1994) revised version of family-level relationships among the phiomorphs.