Data-centric approaches have become increasingly popular in materials science, also known as informational materials science. Nanostructures often play essential roles in materials properties. Nanoinformatics is an important subset of informational materials science and a powerful tool for characterization and design of nanostructures. It allows discovery of meaningful and useful information and patterns from experimental and theoretical data and databases. This article reviews progress in nanoinformatics and informational materials science. Data-centric approaches for materials property description, construction of interatomic potentials, discovery of new inorganic compounds, efficient characterization of ionic transport and interfacial structures, hyperspectral image data analysis, and design of catalytic nanoparticles are outlined.