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Ketosis is a metabolic disease of dairy cows often characterized by high concentrations of ketone bodies and fatty acids, but low milk protein and milk production. The Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)-signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) and the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways are central for the regulation of milk protein synthesis. The effect of high levels of fatty acids on these pathways and β-casein synthesis are unknown in dairy cows with clinical ketosis. Mammary gland tissue and blood samples were collected from healthy (n = 15) and clinically-ketotic (n = 15) cows. In addition, bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMEC) were treated with fatty acids, methionine (Met) or prolactin (PRL), respectively. In vivo, the serum concentration of fatty acids was greater (P > 0.05) and the percentage of milk protein (P > 0.05) was lower in cows with clinical ketosis. The JAK2-STAT5 and mTOR signaling pathways were inhibited and the abundance of β-casein was lower in mammary tissue of cows with clinical ketosis (P > 0.05). In vitro, high levels of fatty acids inhibited the JAK2-STAT5 and mTOR signaling pathways (P > 0.05) and further decreased the β-casein synthesis (P > 0.05) in BMEC. Methionine or PRL treatment, as positive regulators, activated the JAK2-STAT5 and mTOR signaling pathways to increase the β-casein synthesis. Importantly, the high concentration of fatty acids attenuated the positive effect of Met or PRL on mTOR, JAK2-STAT5 pathways and the abundance of β-casein (P > 0.05). Overall, these data indicate that the high concentrations of fatty acids that reach the mammary cells during clinical ketosis inhibit mTOR and JAK2-STAT5 signaling pathways, and further suppress β-casein synthesis.
Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is characterized by delayed P300 latency and reduced grey matter (GM) volume, respectively. The relationship between the features in aMCI is unclear. This study was to investigate the relationship between the altered P300 latency and the GM volume in aMCI.
Thirty-four aMCI and 34 well-matched normal controls (NC) were studied using electroencephalogram during a visual oddball task and scanned with MRI. Both tests were finished in the same day.
As compared with the NC group, the aMCI group exhibited delayed P300 latency in parietal cortex and reduced GM volumes in bilateral temporal pole and left hippocampus/parahippocampal gyrus. A remarkable negative correlation was found between delayed P300 latency and reduced left hippocampal volume only in the aMCI group. Interestingly, the mediating analysis found P300 latency significantly mediated the association between right supramarginal gyrus volume and information processing speed indicated by Stroop Color and Word Test A scores.
The association between delayed P300 latency and reduced left hippocampal volume in aMCI subjects suggests that reduced left hippocampal volume may be the potential structural basis of delayed P300 latency.
Findings for the roles of dairy products, Ca and vitamin D on ovarian cancer risk remain controversial. We aimed to assess these associations by using an updated meta-analysis. Five electronic databases (e.g. PubMed and Embase) were searched from inception to 24 December 2019. Pooled relative risks (RR) with 95 % CI were calculated. A total of twenty-nine case–control or cohort studies were included. For comparisons of the highest v. lowest intakes, higher whole milk intake was associated with increased ovarian cancer risk (RR 1·35; 95 % CI 1·15, 1·59), whereas decreased risks were observed for higher intakes of low-fat milk (RR 0·84; 95 % CI 0·73, 0·96), dietary Ca (RR 0·71; 95 % CI 0·60, 0·84) and dietary vitamin D (RR 0·80; 95 % CI 0·67, 0·95). Additionally, for every 100 g/d increment, increased ovarian cancer risks were found for total dairy products (RR 1·03; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·04) and for whole milk (RR 1·07; 95 % CI 1·03, 1·11); however, decreased risks were found for 100 g/d increased intakes of low-fat milk (RR 0·95; 95 % CI 0·91, 0·99), cheese (RR 0·87; 95 % CI 0·76, 0·98), dietary Ca (RR 0·96; 95 % CI 0·95, 0·98), total Ca (RR 0·98; 95 % CI 0·97, 0·99), dietary vitamin D (RR 0·92; 95 % CI 0·87, 0·97) and increased levels of circulating vitamin D (RR 0·84; 95 % CI 0·72, 0·97). These results show that whole milk intake might contribute to a higher ovarian cancer risk, whereas low-fat milk, dietary Ca and dietary vitamin D might reduce the risk.
To summarize characteristics and commonalities of non-technical competency frameworks for health professionals in emergency and disaster.
An electronic literature search was conducted in PubMed, MEDLINE, ERIC, Scopus, Cochrane database, and Google Scholar to identify original English-language articles related to development, evaluation or application of the nontechnical competency frameworks. Reviewers assessed identified articles for exclusion/inclusion criteria and abstracted data on study design, framework characteristics, and reliability/validity evidence.
Of the 9627 abstracts screened, 65 frameworks were identiﬁed from 94 studies that were eligible for result extraction. Sixty (63.8%) studies concentrated on clinical settings. Common scenarios of the studies were acute critical events in hospitals (44;46.8%) and nonspecified disasters (39;41.5%). Most of the participants (76; 80.9%) were clinical practitioners, and participants in 36 (38.3%) studies were multispecialty. Thirty-three (50.8%) and 42 (64.6%) frameworks had not reported evidence on reliability and validity, respectively. Fourteen of the most commonly involved domains were identified from the frameworks.
Nontechnical competency frameworks applied to multidisciplinary emergency health professionals are heterogeneous in construct and application. A fundamental framework with standardized terminology for the articulation of competency should be developed and validated so as to be accepted and adapted universally by health professionals in all-hazard emergency environment.
Terrorist attacks can occur anywhere. As the threat of terrorism develops, the China-Eurasia Expo held in Ürümqi, China is attracting fewer potential visitors. A nationwide survey of 2034 residents from 31 provinces and municipalities in China was conducted to examine the relation between the distance to respondents’ city of residence from Ürümqi and their levels of concern for safety and security concerning the Expo. The two were found to be positively related: the closer the respondents lived to Ürümqi, the less concerned they were with the safety and security of the Expo. This is consistent with the “psychological typhoon eye” effect, which states that people living closer to the center of an unfortunate event (whether natural or man-made hazards) are less concerned with the event’s negative consequences. This effect appears to hold for terrorism. There are implications of this finding for international counter-terrorism practice, tourism, and research.
The associations between grains and carbohydrate intake and type 2 diabetes mellitus are controversial. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between grains, carbohydrate intakes and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in China.
Materials and Methods
This was a 1:2 (sex/age) matched case-control study, participants were adults. Cases were diabetics diagnosed within 3 months and the controls were without disorder of glucose metabolism. Face-to-face interviews were conducted to collect information on their socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, and dietary intakes using structured questionnaires. Grains were divided into whole, refined and common grain, and the carbohydrate intake was also calculated. The study participants were divided into quartiles (Q1 (lowest), Q2, Q3, and Q4) by food and nutrients intakes separately. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to explore the association of foods and nutrients with type 2 diabetes mellitus after adjusting for potential confounders. Trend test were performed by treating quartiles variables as continuous variables.
Results and Discussion
Our study enrolled 384 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients (males 162, females 222) and 768 controls (males 324, females 444). Multivariable conditional logistic regression analysis(Ver. 21.0; PSS Inc.,Chicago,IL,USA) showed that moderate amount intake of total cereals was inversely associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The adjusted OR of the second quartile (Q2, 223g/d) and the third quartile (Q3, 255g/d) were 0.60(95%CI:0.38–0.93) and 0.51(95%CI:0.33–0.79), respectively, compared with the lowest quartile (Q1, 165g/d), but this inverse association was not found in the highest quartile (Q4, 307g/d) and the OR was 0.74(95%CI:0.47–1.15). There was significant negative association between whole grains intake and type 2 diabetes mellitus with the OR of the highest intake 0.48(95%CI:0.31–0.77) compared with the lowest intake(Ptrend = 0.001).No association was found between refined grains intake intake and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and neither did common grain intake. Higher carbohydrate intake may have a beneficial effect on type 2 diabetes mellitus. The best effect was found in the second quartile intake (Q2, 264g/d), with an adjusted OR of 0.56 (95%CI:0.37–0.84) compared with the lowest quartile intake (Q1, 220g/d).The OR of Q3 (285g/d) and Q4 (334g/d) were 0.69 (95%CI:0.48–1.00) and 0.66 (95CI:0.44–1.00) respectively(Ptrend p = 0.017).
Moderate amount of total cereals intake may benefit to type 2 diabetes mellitus, however, much lower and higher intake can increase the risk. Higher intake of whole grains was associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Carbohydrate intake was negative associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
To explore whether and how group cognitive-behavioural therapy (GCBT) plus medication differs from medication alone for the treatment of generalised anxiety disorder (GAD).
Hundred and seventy patients were randomly assigned to the GCBT plus duloxetine (n=89) or duloxetine group (n=81). The primary outcomes were Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) response and remission rates. The explorative secondary measures included score reductions from baseline in the HAMA total, psychic, and somatic anxiety subscales (HAMA-PA, HAMA-SA), the Hamilton Depression Scale, the Severity Subscale of Clinical Global Impression Scale, Global Assessment of Functioning, and the 12-item Short-Form Health Survey. Assessments were conducted at baseline, 4-week, 8-week, and 3-month follow-up.
At 4 weeks, HAMA response (GCBT group 57.0% vs. control group 24.4%, p=0.000, Cohen’s d=0.90) and remission rates (GCBT group 21.5% vs. control group 6.2%, p=0.004; d=0.51), and most secondary outcomes (all p<0.05, d=0.36−0.77) showed that the combined therapy was superior. At 8 weeks, all the primary and secondary significant differences found at 4 weeks were maintained with smaller effect sizes (p<0.05, d=0.32−0.48). At 3-month follow-up, the combined therapy was only significantly superior in the HAMA total (p<0.045, d=0.43) and HAMA-PA score reductions (p<0.001, d=0.77). Logistic regression showed superiority of the combined therapy for HAMA response rates [odds ratio (OR)=2.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02−4.42, p=0.04] and remission rates (OR=2.80, 95% CI 1.27−6.16, p=0.01).
Compared with duloxetine alone, GCBT plus duloxetine showed significant treatment response for GAD over a shorter period of time, particularly for psychic anxiety symptoms, which may suggest that GCBT was effective in changing cognitive style.
Schizophrenia is a complex mental disorder with high heritability and polygenic inheritance. Multimodal neuroimaging studies have also indicated that abnormalities of brain structure and function are a plausible neurobiological characterisation of schizophrenia. However, the polygenic effects of schizophrenia on these imaging endophenotypes have not yet been fully elucidated.
To investigate the effects of polygenic risk for schizophrenia on the brain grey matter volume and functional connectivity, which are disrupted in schizophrenia.
Genomic and neuroimaging data from a large sample of Han Chinese patients with schizophrenia (N = 509) and healthy controls (N = 502) were included in this study. We examined grey matter volume and functional connectivity via structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, respectively. Using the data from a recent meta-analysis of a genome-wide association study that comprised a large number of Chinese people, we calculated a polygenic risk score (PGRS) for each participant.
The imaging genetic analysis revealed that the individual PGRS showed a significantly negative correlation with the hippocampal grey matter volume and hippocampus–medial prefrontal cortex functional connectivity, both of which were lower in the people with schizophrenia than in the controls. We also found that the observed neuroimaging measures showed weak but similar changes in unaffected first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia.
These findings suggested that genetically influenced brain grey matter volume and functional connectivity may provide important clues for understanding the pathological mechanisms of schizophrenia and for the early diagnosis of schizophrenia.
The majority of the family caregivers are adult children in China. The aim of this study was to examine the mediating role of reciprocal filial piety (RFP) between the care recipient's behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) and the caregiver's burden or gain among adult-child caregivers caring for parents with dementia in China.
Using Kramer's caregiver adaptation model as the research framework, a cross-sectional survey collected data from 401 adult-child caregivers caring for parents with dementia from hospitals in China.
Results of the regression analysis revealed that after adjusting for covariates, the regression coefficient between care recipient's BPSD and caregiver burden reduced from c = 1.01 to c′ = 0.91 when controlling for RFP. Using the bootstrap approach, the estimated indirect effect through RFP between care recipient's BPSD and caregiver burden was 0.11 (95% CI: 0.03, 0.20). The mediation proportion was 11%. The absolute value of the regression coefficient between care recipient's BPSD and caregiver gain reduced from c = −0.75 to c′ = −0.63 when controlling for RFP. The bootstrapped estimate of the indirect effect through RFP between care recipient's BPSD and caregiver gain was −0.12 (95% CI: −0.18, −0.07). The mediation proportion was 12%.
The findings suggest that the effect of care recipient's BPSD on caregiver's burden/gain may be related to the level of RFP among adult-child caregivers in China.
The Critically Endangered Chinese giant salamander Andrias davidianus, the world's largest amphibian, is severely threatened by unsustainable exploitation of wild individuals. However, field data with which to assess the salamander's status, population trends, or exploitation across its geographical range are limited, and recent field surveys using standard ecological field techniques have typically failed to detect wild individuals. We conducted community-based fieldwork in three national nature reserves (Fanjingshan, Leigongshan and Mayanghe) in Guizhou Province, China, to assess whether local ecological knowledge constitutes a useful tool for salamander conservation. We collected a sample of dated salamander sighting records and associated data from these reserves for comparative assessment of the relative status of salamander populations across the region. Although Fanjingshan and Leigongshan are still priority sites for salamander conservation, few recent sightings were recorded in either reserve, and respondents considered that salamanders had declined locally at both reserves. The species may already be functionally extinct at Mayanghe. Although respondent data on threats to salamanders in Guizhou are more difficult to interpret, overharvesting was the most commonly suggested explanation for salamander declines, and it is likely that the growing salamander farming industry is the primary driver of salamander extraction from Guizhou's reserves. Questionnaire-based surveys can collect novel quantitative data that provide unique insights into the local status of salamander populations, and we advocate wide-scale incorporation of this research approach into future salamander field programmes.
Metal nanoparticle–decorated graphene oxides are promising materials for use in various optoelectronic applications because of their unique plasmonic properties. In this paper, a simple, environmentally friendly method for the synthesis of gold nanoparticle–decorated graphene oxide that can be used to improve the efficiency of organic photovoltaic devices (OPVs) is reported. Here, the amino acid glycine is empolyed as an environmentally friendly reducing reagent for the reduction of gold ions in the graphene oxide solutions. Furthermore, these nanocomposites are empolyed as the anode buffer layer in OPVs to trigger surface plasmonic resonance, which improved the efficiency of the OPVs. The results indicate that such nanomaterials appear to have great potential for application in OPVs.
We found evidence for the super–orbital modulation in the X-ray emission of LS I + 61°303 from the longest monitoring date by the RXTE. The time evolution of the modulated fraction in the orbital light curves can be well fitted with a sinusoidal function having a super-orbital period of 1667 days. However, we have found a 281.8±44.6 day shift between the super-orbital variability found at radio frequencies and our X-ray data. We also find a super-orbital modulation in the maximum count rate of the orbital light curves, compatible with the former results, including the shift.
The mouse sperm genome is resistant to in vitro heat treatment, and embryos derived from heated sperm can support full-term embryonic development, but the blastocyst rate and implantation rate are lower compared to embryos derived from fresh sperm. In the present study, the patterns of DNA methylation, histone H4K12 (ACH4K12) acetylation, H3K9 trimethylation (H3K9-TriM), and H3K27 trimethylation (H3K27-TriM) in preimplantation embryos derived from 65°C-heated sperm were investigated. Although no evident changes in global DNA methyaltion, histone H4K12 (ACH4K12) acetylation, and H3K9 trimethylation (H3K9-TriM) were found, significantly lower levels of H3K27-TriM, which was thought to be one of the reasons for low efficiency of mouse cloning, were found in the inner cell mass of heated-sperm derived blastocysts. Thus, defective modification of H3K27-TriM might contribute to compromised development of embryos derived from heated sperm.
Few studies have been conducted to investigate the influence of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) on the long-term prognosis of end-stage renal disease (ESRD).
A retrospective cohort study.
The largest regional hospital renowned for haemodialysis in northern Taiwan.
A total of 702 ESRD patients undergoing haemodialysis between 1993 and 2002 were evaluated.
The rate of overall use of rhEPO, vitamin D3 or Fe therapy was 62 %. The 10-year survival rate in patients with rhEPO supplementation was statistically more favourable than that in patients without rhEPO (hazard ratio (HR) = 0·38, 95 % CI 0·30, 0·47, P < 0·0001). Similar findings were noted for patients receiving vitamin D3 (HR = 0·36, 95 % CI 0·21, 0·64, P = 0.0004) and Fe (HR = 0·45, 95 % CI 0·33, 0·61, P < 0·0001). After adjusting for age, education and aetiology, the administration of rhEPO resulted in statistically significant improvements in long-term survival rate either with (HR = 0·30, 95 % CI 0·22, 0·42) or without (HR = 0·48, 95 % CI 0·38, 0·61) combined use of Fe or vitamin D3.
We demonstrated a reduction in long-term mortality related to supplementation therapy with rhEPO, vitamin D3 and Fe. The findings provide a justification for the administration of combined supplement therapy in patients undergoing haemodialysis.
In this paper we report the nano-phase separation structure in the polymer
blend film and its optical properties. Polystyrene (PS)/polymethyl
methacrylate (PMMA) blend film is spin-coated on substrate. A sandwiched
structure consisting of a depleted PMMA layer, a PS/PMMA blend layer and a
PS-rich top layer has been formed. By selectively dissolving the PS-rich
phase, a nanoporous film is generated, and the nanoporous structure can be
tuned by changing the weight ratio of PS/PMMA in the blend solution in
fabrication. The optical properties of the nanoporous thin films are
determined. Our results show that by introducing the nanoporous structure,
the refractive index can be effectively modified. By selecting proper film
thickness, the maximum optical transmission can be achieved in the specific
Effect of lamb age, transport stimulation and repeated hormone superovulation on the number of collected oocytes were determined. Effect of the culture medium containing ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) on the development of embryos produced in vitro from lamb oocytes was also investigated. Results indicated that the mean numbers of collected and available oocytes (oocytes with compacted cumulus cells, evenly granulated ooplasm and morphologically normal) from 6- to 8-week-old lambs were 60.8±13.9 and 58.2±12.3, respectively. These figures were higher than those obtained from 12- to 14-week-old lambs (27.3±5.1 and 26.0±4.9) (P<0.05). Stimulation by transportation didn't decrease the number of collected oocytes from the superovulated lambs (P>0.05). However, the number of collected oocytes in the repeated superovulation group was significantly reduced, compared with the control group (P<0.05). The embryonic culture medium supplemented with 10 μmol/l EDTA highly improved the development capability of the embryos from lamb oocytes (P<0.05). Healthy lambs were born following embryo transfer.
A parent strain of Aspergillus niger LW-1 producing β-mannanase, preserved in our laboratory, was isolated. A strain, N-9, was screened out and further treated with vacuum microwave irradiation and ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS). A mutant strain, E-30, producing a high and stable yield of β-mannanase was obtained through screening by solid-state cultivation on the basic fermentation medium and several generations of bevel subculture. Its enzyme activity (36 675 U/g) was increased by 2.15 times compared to that of A. niger LW-1 (17 048 U/g). The production of high-yield β-mannanase by E-30 remained stable when maintained at 4°C for 2 months.
Spindle movement, including spindle migration during first meiosis and spindle rotation during second meiosis, is essential for asymmetric divisions in mouse oocytes. Previous studies by others and us have shown that microfilaments are required for both spindle migration and rotation. In the present study, we aimed to further investigate the mechanism controlling spindle movement during mouse oocyte meiosis. By employing drug treatment and immunofluorescence microscopy, we showed that dynamic microtubule assembly was involved in both spindle migration and rotation. Furthermore, we found that the calcium/CaM/CaMKII pathway was important for regulating spindle rotation.
In this study we examined ERP (event-related-potential) responses in the morphosyntactic processing of subject–verb agreements by L2 Chinese learners of English. Fifteen proficient L2 learners and fifteen native English speakers were presented with English sentences that varied in the grammaticality of the sentence with respect to subject–verb agreement. Our results indicate that late L2 learners show distinct ERP responses from native speakers in the processing of syntactic features that are absent in their L1, even when their behavioral patterns are similar to those of native speakers. The results are taken to support the proposal that language-specific experiences with L1 shape the neural structure of processing in L2.
To increase our understanding of the relationships of trunk fat mass (FMtrunk) and four anthropometric indices in Chinese males, 1090 males aged 20–40 years were randomly recruited from the city of Changsha, China. Waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC) were measured using standardized equipment, and three other anthropometric indices of BMI, waist:hip ratio (WHR) and conicity index (CoI) were calculated using weight, height, HC and WC. FMtrunk (in kg) was measured using a Hologic QDR 4500 W dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanner. There was an increasing trend of FMtrunk, %FMtrunk (percentage of FMtrunk) and BMI, WC, WHR, CoI in successively older age groups (e.g. the mean FMtrunk values were 4·63 (sd 2·58), 5·39 (sd 2·74), 5·93 (sd 2·82), 6·57 (sd 2·94) in four 5-year age groups, respectively). FMtrunk and %FMtrunk were significantly correlated with four anthropometric indices with the Pearson's correlation coefficients ranging from 0·25 to 0·86. Principal component analysis was performed to form three principal components that interpreted over 99·5% of the total variation of four related anthropometric indices in all age groups, with over 65% of the total variation accounted by principal component 1. Multiple regression analyses showed that three principal components explained a greater variance (R2 70·0–80·1%) in FMtrunk than did BMI or WC alone (R2 57·8–74·1%). The present results suggest that there is an increasing trend of FMtrunk and four anthropometric indices in successively older age groups; that age has important effects on the relationships of FMtrunk and studied anthropometric indices; and that the accuracy of predicting FMtrunk using four anthropometric indices is higher than using BMI or WC alone.