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The rapid and accurate taxonomic identification of fossils is of great significance in paleontology, biostratigraphy, and other fields. However, taxonomic identification is often labor-intensive and tedious, and the requisition of extensive prior knowledge about a taxonomic group also requires long-term training. Moreover, identification results are often inconsistent across researchers and communities. Accordingly, in this study, we used deep learning to support taxonomic identification. We used web crawlers to collect the Fossil Image Dataset (FID) via the Internet, obtaining 415,339 images belonging to 50 fossil clades. Then we trained three powerful convolutional neural networks on a high-performance workstation. The Inception-ResNet-v2 architecture achieved an average accuracy of 0.90 in the test dataset when transfer learning was applied. The clades of microfossils and vertebrate fossils exhibited the highest identification accuracies of 0.95 and 0.90, respectively. In contrast, clades of sponges, bryozoans, and trace fossils with various morphologies or with few samples in the dataset exhibited a performance below 0.80. Visual explanation methods further highlighted the discrepancies among different fossil clades and suggested similarities between the identifications made by machine classifiers and taxonomists. Collecting large paleontological datasets from various sources, such as the literature, digitization of dark data, citizen-science data, and public data from the Internet may further enhance deep learning methods and their adoption. Such developments will also possibly lead to image-based systematic taxonomy to be replaced by machine-aided classification in the future. Pioneering studies can include microfossils and some invertebrate fossils. To contribute to this development, we deployed our model on a server for public access at www.ai-fossil.com.
This study evaluated the association between inflammatory diets as measured by the dietary inflammatory index (DII), and inflammation biomarkers, and the development of preeclampsia among the Chinese population. We followed the reporting guidelines of the STROBE statement for observational studies. A total of 466 preeclampsia cases aged over 18 years were recruited between March 2016 and June 2019, and 466 healthy controls were 1:1 ratio matched by age (± 3 years), week of gestation (± 1 week), and gestational diabetes mellitus. The energy-adjusted DII (E-DII) was computed based on dietary intake assessed using a 79-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Inflammatory biomarkers were analyzed by ELISA kits. The mean E-DII scores were -0.65 ± 1.58 for cases and -1.19 ± 1.47 for controls (P value <0.001). E-DII scores positively correlated with IFN-γ (rs = 0.194, P value = 0.001) and IL-4 (rs = 0.135, P value = 0.021). After multivariable adjustment, E-DII scores were positively related to preeclampsia risk (P trend <0.001). The highest tertile of E-DII was 2.18 times the lowest tertiles (95% CI = 1.52, 3.13). The odds of preeclampsia increased by 30% (95% CI= 18%, 43%, P value <0.001) for each E-DII score increase. The preeclampsia risk was positively associated with IL-2 (OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.11), IL-4 (OR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.54) and TGF-β (OR = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.06, 1.29). Therefore, proinflammatory diets, corresponding to higher IL-2, IL-4 and TGF-β levels, were associated with increased preeclampsia risk.
The objective of this study was to examine the relationships between students’ perceptions of their school policies and environments (i.e. sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) free policy, plain water drinking, vegetables and fruit eating campaign, outdoor physical activity initiative, and the SH150 programme (exercise 150 min/week at school)) and their dietary behaviours and physical activity.
Primary, middle and high schools in Taiwan.
A nationally representative sample of 2433 primary school (5th–6th grade) students, 3212 middle school students and 2829 high school students completed the online survey in 2018.
Multivariate analysis results showed that after controlling for school level, gender and age, the students’ perceptions of school sugar-free policies were negatively associated with the consumption of SSB and positively associated with consumption of plain water. Schools’ campaigns promoting the eating of vegetables and fruit were positively associated with students’ consumption of vegetables. In addition, schools’ initiatives promoting outdoor physical activity and the SH150 programme were positively associated with students’ engagement in outdoor physical activities and daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity.
Students’ perceptions of healthy school policies and environments promote healthy eating and an increase in physical activity for students.
X-ray powder diffraction data, unit-cell parameters, and space group for rivaroxaban, C19H18ClN3O5S, are reported [a = 9.010(3) Å, b = 10.986(6) Å, c = 11.230(1) Å, α = 63.439(5)°, β = 74.355(4)°, γ = 78.133(3)°, unit-cell volume V = 952.87 Å3, Z = 2, ρcal = 1.519 g cm−3, and space group P1]. All measured lines were indexed and are consistent with the P1 space group. No detectable impurities were observed.
The coffee white stem borer, Xylotrechus quadripes Chevrolat (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), is a major destructive pest of Coffea arabica L. (Gentianales: Rubiaceae), widely planted in many Asian countries, including China. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a common method for quantitative analysis of gene transcription levels. To obtain accurate and reliable qRT-PCR results, it is necessary to select suitable reference genes to different experimental conditions for normalizing the target gene expression. However, the stability of the expression of reference genes in X. quadripes has rarely been studied. In this study, the expression stability of nine candidate reference genes were investigated under biotic and abiotic conditions for use in qRT-PCR's normalization. By integrating the results of four algorithms of NormFinder, BestKeeper, geNorm, and RefFinder, the optimal reference gene combinations in different experimental conditions were performed as follows: RPL10a and EIF3D were the optimal reference genes for developmental stage samples, EIF4E, RPL10a, and RPS27a for tissue samples, V-ATP and EF1α for the sex samples, EIF3D and V-ATP for temperature treatment, RPS27a and RPL10a for insecticide stress, and RPL10a, RPS27a, and EF1α for all the samples. This study will help to obtain the stable internal reference genes under biotic and abiotic conditions and lay the foundation for in-depth functional research of target genes or genomics on olfactory molecular mechanisms, temperature adaptability, and insecticide resistance in X. quadripes.
We aimed to evaluate the association between coffee and/or tea consumption and breast cancer (BC) risk among premenopausal and postmenopausal women and to conduct a network meta-analysis.
Systematic review and network meta-analysis.
We conducted a systematic review of electronic publications in the last 30 years to identify case–control studies or prospective cohort studies that evaluated the effects of coffee and tea intake.
Forty-five studies that included more than 3 323 288 participants were eligible for analysis. Network meta-analysis was performed to determine the effects of coffee and/or tea consumption on reducing BC risk in a dose-dependent manner and differences in coffee/tea type, menopause status, hormone receptor and the BMI in subgroup and meta-regression analyses. According to the first pairwise meta-analysis, low-dose coffee intake and high-dose tea intake may exhibit efficacy in preventing ER(estrogen receptor)− BC, particularly in postmenopausal women. Then, we performed another pairwise and network meta-analysis and determined that the recommended daily doses were 2–3 cups/d of coffee or ≥5 cups/d of tea, which contained a high concentration of caffeine, particularly in postmenopausal women.
Coffee and tea consumption is not associated with a reduction in the overall BC risk in postmenopausal women and is associated with a potentially lower risk of ER− BC. And the highest recommended dose is 2–3 cups of coffee/d or ≥5 cups of tea/d. They are potentially useful dietary protectants for preventing BC.
To investigate the safety and feasibility of midazolam for conscious sedation in transcatheter device closure of atrial septal defects guided solely by transthoracic echocardiography.
A retrospective analysis was performed on 55 patients who underwent transcatheter device closure of atrial septal defects from October, 2019 to May, 2020. All patients received intravenous midazolam and local anesthesia with lidocaine to maintain sedation. A group of previous patients with unpublished data who underwent the same procedure with general anesthesia was set as the control group. The relevant clinical parameters, the Ramsay sedation scores, the numerical rating scale, and the post-operative satisfaction questionnaire were recorded and analyzed.
In the midazolam group, the success rate of atrial septal defect closure was 98.2%. Hemodynamic stability was observed during the procedure. None of the patients needed additional endotracheal intubation for general anesthesia. Compared with the control group, the midazolam group had no statistically significant differences in the Ramsay sedation score and numerical rating scale scores. Patients in the midazolam group experienced more post-operative satisfaction than those in the control group.
Conscious sedation using midazolam is a safe and effective anesthetic technique for transcatheter device closure of atrial septal defects guided solely by transthoracic echocardiography.
NaY zeolite was synthesized from kaolin/dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) intercalation composites using an in situ crystallization technique. The effects of the intercalation ratios and the amounts of the kaolin/DMSO intercalation composite on the synthesis of an NaY zeolite molecular sieve were studied. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, differential thermal analysis, N2 adsorption–desorption and scanning electron microscopy. In the in situ synthesis system, when the kaolin/DMSO intercalation composite was added, pure NaY zeolite was formed. By increasing the amount of kaolin/DMSO intercalation composite added, the crystallinity of the samples increased, and after reaching the maximum amount of kaolin/DMSO intercalation composite added, the crystallinity decreased with further increases of the amount of kaolin/DMSO intercalation composite added. To higher intercalation ratio, the crystallinity can be greatly improved at the lower addition content. At an intercalation ratio of 84%, the added amount of kaolin/DMSO intercalation composite was 2.5% and the crystallinity of the NaY zeolite molecular sieve reached a maximum value of 45%. At intercalation ratios of 55% and 22%, the amount of kaolin/DMSO intercalation composite added was 15% and the crystallinities of the NaY zeolite molecular sieves were 44% and 47%, respectively. The NaY zeolite has good thermal stability and a particle diameter of ~0.5 μm. The Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) specific surface area and pore volume of the sample were 519 m2 g–1 and 0.355 cm3 g–1, respectively.
Manure and chemical fertilizers have different effects on soil properties, the nitrogen cycle, and crop yield. This study aimed to investigate the effects of different fertilizer applications under the same N input on soil physicochemical properties and soil bacterial communities and to explain the contributions of soil properties to grain yield. Manure substitution of chemical fertilizer was conducted in leaching monitoring systems. The study began in 2009 and sampling was carried out in 2014 and 2016. Three fertilizer treatments with the same total N, P, and K application rates and one control treatment were designed as follows: (1) CK, without nitrogen fertilizer; (2) 100%U, whole nitrogen coming from urea; (3) 100%M, whole nitrogen coming from composted cattle manure; and (4) 50%U + 50%M, half nitrogen from composted cattle manure and half nitrogen from urea. Soil organic carbon (SOC) content was positively correlated with total N (TN), NO3−–N, and NH4+–N contents, the mean weight diameter of soil aggregates, and the Shannon diversity index of bacteria, whereas SOC content was not significantly correlated with grain yield. NO3−–N content was positively correlated with grain yield. Substituting half the amount of chemical fertilizer with manure as a nitrogen source improved soil stability, increased bacterial diversity, and enhanced nitrogen supply, while reducing nitrogen loss from ammonia volatilization and nitrogen leaching. Substituting half the amount of chemical fertilizer with manure as a nitrogen source was a more sustainable way to increase grain yield through a sustainable nitrate supply and to reduce N loss.
During the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), people are under the dual pressure of interpersonal isolation and concerns about infection. An evaluation of people’s psychological status and risk factors is needed to conduct target interventions.
This was a nationwide, multicenter, cross-sectional study using quota and snowball sampling methods during the COVID-19 epidemic in China. Participants’ characteristics and experiences were obtained by an online questionnaire and telephone review. Psychological distress and sleep problems were measured by the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and the Insomnia Severity Index.
A total of 23,500 participants were recruited, and 19,372 valid questionnaires were received from 11 centers. Overall, 11.0–13.3% of the participants had anxiety, depression, or insomnia symptoms, and 1.9–2.7% had severe symptoms. The prevalence of psychological and sleep problems has increased. Working as frontline medical staff (Odds Ratio OR = 3.406), living in Hubei Province (OR = 2.237), close contacts with COVID-19 (OR = 1.808), and age 35–49 years (OR = 1.310) were risk factors for anxiety symptoms; no outside activity for 2 weeks (OR = 2.167) and age 35–49 years (OR = 1.198) were risk factors for depression symptoms; and living in Hubei Province (OR = 2.376), no outside activity for 2 weeks (OR = 1.927), and age 35–49 years (OR = 1.262) were risk factors for insomnia symptoms. Only 1.9% of participants received counseling during the epidemic.
Psychological and sleep problems increased during interpersonal isolation due to COVID-19. Current psychological interventions are far from sufficient.
Arsenopyrite (FeAsS) and realgar (As4S4) are two common arsenic minerals that often cause serious environmental issues. Centralised treatment of arsenic-containing tailings can reduce land occupation and save management costs. The current work examined the remediation schemes of tailings from Hunan Province, China, where by different tailings containing arsenopyrite and realgar were blended with exogenous slag zero valence iron (ZVI). Introducing Fe-oxidising bacteria (Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans) recreates a biologically oxidative environment. All bioleaching experiments were done over three stages, each for 7 days and the solid phase of all tests was characterised by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and selective extraction analyses. The results showed that the mixture group reduced arsenic release by 72.9–74.7% compared with the control group. The addition of 0.2 g ZVI clearly decreased arsenic release, and the addition of 4.0 g ZVI led to the lowest arsenic release among all tests. The decrease of arsenic released from the tailings was due to the adsorption and uptake of arsenic by secondary iron-containing minerals and Fe–As(V) secondary mineralisation. The addition of large amounts of ZVI reduced the arsenic detected in the amorphous Fe precipitates. Therefore, a low cost and integrated strategy to reduce arsenic release from tailings is to mix two typical tailings and apply exogenous slag ZVI, which can apply to the in situ remediation of two kinds or more arsenic-containing tailings.
Ketosis is a metabolic disease of dairy cows often characterized by high concentrations of ketone bodies and fatty acids, but low milk protein and milk production. The Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)-signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) and the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways are central for the regulation of milk protein synthesis. The effect of high levels of fatty acids on these pathways and β-casein synthesis are unknown in dairy cows with clinical ketosis. Mammary gland tissue and blood samples were collected from healthy (n = 15) and clinically-ketotic (n = 15) cows. In addition, bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMEC) were treated with fatty acids, methionine (Met) or prolactin (PRL), respectively. In vivo, the serum concentration of fatty acids was greater (P > 0.05) and the percentage of milk protein (P > 0.05) was lower in cows with clinical ketosis. The JAK2-STAT5 and mTOR signaling pathways were inhibited and the abundance of β-casein was lower in mammary tissue of cows with clinical ketosis (P > 0.05). In vitro, high levels of fatty acids inhibited the JAK2-STAT5 and mTOR signaling pathways (P > 0.05) and further decreased the β-casein synthesis (P > 0.05) in BMEC. Methionine or PRL treatment, as positive regulators, activated the JAK2-STAT5 and mTOR signaling pathways to increase the β-casein synthesis. Importantly, the high concentration of fatty acids attenuated the positive effect of Met or PRL on mTOR, JAK2-STAT5 pathways and the abundance of β-casein (P > 0.05). Overall, these data indicate that the high concentrations of fatty acids that reach the mammary cells during clinical ketosis inhibit mTOR and JAK2-STAT5 signaling pathways, and further suppress β-casein synthesis.
To evaluate newborn fluoxetine exposure at different period on development and behavior of adult rats.
Male rat pups were randomized to be treated once daily with fluoxetine(s.c.) or saline(s.c.) during postnatal day 1∼7 and postnatal day 8∼21. Recorded the body weight. Starting at 90 days of age, all rats were tested with several experimental facilities, including open field test, elevated-plus maze, novelty- suppressed feeding test and forced swim test.
1 Weight gain of rats with fluoxetine exposure during postnatal day 1∼7 were lower than controls (P<0.05).
2 Exploratory behavior decreased and depression anxiety behavior increased in adult rats with neonatal fluoxetine exposure (P<0.05), and more severe with postnatal day 1∼7 exposure (P<0.05).
Newborn fluoxetine exposure may result badness weight gain and depression anxiety behavior in adult rats, and the earlier exposure may accompany the larger risk.
To explore rearing, coping, attributional style and their relations in depression adolescents.
64 adolescents with depressive disorder and 125 normal subjects of similar age, sex were presented with self-made social demographic scale, Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran-own memories of parental rearing practices in childhood (EMBU), Children attributional style questionnaire (CASQ) and Coping style questionnaire.
1. As to EMBU, there was a significant deficit in parental emotional warmth (p< 0.001) with depression adolescents, and whose parental punishment and strict (p< 0.05), rejection and denial (p< 0.001) were higher than normal ones.
2. As to CASQ, the differences were significant in self-blame (p< 0.001), asking for help (p< 0.001), daydreaming (p< 0.001) and recession (p< 0.05).
3. The difference of attributional pattern was significant (p< 0.001).
4. Mather’ emotional warmth and rejection and denial were both related to adolescents’ coping style and attributional style.
Depressive adolescents had negative coping style and attributional style, and mother’ rearing style may has relation with them.
Automutilation behavior and Suicidal thinking are common in individuals with bipolar disorder. Few studies have investigated the prevalence of and risk factors for self-injury behavior and Suicidal ideation among adolescent patients.
Patients aged from 13 to 18 years old with bipolar I or II disorder (DSM-IV criteria) diagnosed with structured interviews were evaluated using demographic, parents rearing style and adolescent self-rating life events checklist questionnaires to assess incidence and correlates of automutilation behavior and Suicidal ideation. Demographic and psychosocial characteristics were compared for patients with and without a history of self-injury and suicidal ideation.
More boys attempted self-insult (P= .035)and more girls had suicidal thinking (P= .005). The 44% of patients with a history of automutilation behavior, compared with those without such a history, had more negative life events(P=.000);more paternal punish(P=.024),interfere(P=.004)rejecting and negation(P=.008)and maternal rejecting and negation(P=.020). The 67% of patients with suicidal thinking, compared with those without such a history, had more negative life events(P=.033);more maternal interfere and protection(P=.024).
Our retrospective findings indicate that a history of automutilation behavior and suicidal ideation is associated with a more negative life events and more negative parental rearing style. Greater attention to realizing those at high risks for self-injury behavior and suicidal thinking could have an impact on bipolar disorder among adolescents.
Findings for the roles of dairy products, Ca and vitamin D on ovarian cancer risk remain controversial. We aimed to assess these associations by using an updated meta-analysis. Five electronic databases (e.g. PubMed and Embase) were searched from inception to 24 December 2019. Pooled relative risks (RR) with 95 % CI were calculated. A total of twenty-nine case–control or cohort studies were included. For comparisons of the highest v. lowest intakes, higher whole milk intake was associated with increased ovarian cancer risk (RR 1·35; 95 % CI 1·15, 1·59), whereas decreased risks were observed for higher intakes of low-fat milk (RR 0·84; 95 % CI 0·73, 0·96), dietary Ca (RR 0·71; 95 % CI 0·60, 0·84) and dietary vitamin D (RR 0·80; 95 % CI 0·67, 0·95). Additionally, for every 100 g/d increment, increased ovarian cancer risks were found for total dairy products (RR 1·03; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·04) and for whole milk (RR 1·07; 95 % CI 1·03, 1·11); however, decreased risks were found for 100 g/d increased intakes of low-fat milk (RR 0·95; 95 % CI 0·91, 0·99), cheese (RR 0·87; 95 % CI 0·76, 0·98), dietary Ca (RR 0·96; 95 % CI 0·95, 0·98), total Ca (RR 0·98; 95 % CI 0·97, 0·99), dietary vitamin D (RR 0·92; 95 % CI 0·87, 0·97) and increased levels of circulating vitamin D (RR 0·84; 95 % CI 0·72, 0·97). These results show that whole milk intake might contribute to a higher ovarian cancer risk, whereas low-fat milk, dietary Ca and dietary vitamin D might reduce the risk.
Transmission of varicella occurs frequently in schools and households. We investigated the characteristics of varicella cases derived from within-household transmission and the modes of varicella transmission between school and household settings in Shanghai, China, from 2009 to 2018. Within-household transmission occurred in 278 households, of which 134 transmission events were between children. Sixty-one household varicella transmission events may be attributed to isolation procedures for infected students during school outbreaks, and 7.6% of school outbreaks were caused by schoolchildren cases derived from within-household transmission. The frequency of ‘school-household-school’ transmission adds an additional layer of complexity to the control of school varicella outbreaks. Administration of varicella vaccine as post-exposure prophylaxis after exposure is considered to be an effective measure to control varicella spread within households and schools.
To summarize characteristics and commonalities of non-technical competency frameworks for health professionals in emergency and disaster.
An electronic literature search was conducted in PubMed, MEDLINE, ERIC, Scopus, Cochrane database, and Google Scholar to identify original English-language articles related to development, evaluation or application of the nontechnical competency frameworks. Reviewers assessed identified articles for exclusion/inclusion criteria and abstracted data on study design, framework characteristics, and reliability/validity evidence.
Of the 9627 abstracts screened, 65 frameworks were identiﬁed from 94 studies that were eligible for result extraction. Sixty (63.8%) studies concentrated on clinical settings. Common scenarios of the studies were acute critical events in hospitals (44;46.8%) and nonspecified disasters (39;41.5%). Most of the participants (76; 80.9%) were clinical practitioners, and participants in 36 (38.3%) studies were multispecialty. Thirty-three (50.8%) and 42 (64.6%) frameworks had not reported evidence on reliability and validity, respectively. Fourteen of the most commonly involved domains were identified from the frameworks.
Nontechnical competency frameworks applied to multidisciplinary emergency health professionals are heterogeneous in construct and application. A fundamental framework with standardized terminology for the articulation of competency should be developed and validated so as to be accepted and adapted universally by health professionals in all-hazard emergency environment.
The frequency division multiple access (FDMA) strategy used in GLONASS causes inter-frequency phase bias (IFPB) and inter-frequency code bias (IFCB) between receivers from different manufacturers. The existence of IFPB and IFCB significantly increases the difficulties of fixing GLONASS ambiguity and limits the accuracy and reliability of GLONASS positioning. Moreover, the initial value of IFPB and IFCB may be unavailable or unreliable with the increasing number of receivers from different manufacturers in recent years. In this study, a real-time and reliable calibration algorithm of IFPB and IFCB based on multi-GNSS assistance is proposed by providing a fixed solution. Real-time IFPB rate and IFCB can be obtained using this algorithm without the initial IFPB and IFCB. The IFPB rate for all GLONASS satellites and IFCB for each GLONASS satellite are estimated due to different characteristics of IFPB and IFCB. IFPB calibration can be divided into constant and real-time IFPB calibrations to meet the different positioning requirements. Results show that constant IFPB rate has only 2 mm difference from the mean value of real-time IFPB rate. The IFPB rate and IFCB estimated by this algorithm have excellent stability, and the change in reference satellite cannot affect the results of IFPB rate and the stability of IFCB. The centimetre-level positioning results can be obtained using two calibration methods, and the positioning results with real-time calibration method are 10%–20% better than those with the constant calibration method. Under satellite-deprived environments, the improvements of multi-GNSS positioning accuracy with constant inter-frequency bias calibration gradually increase as the satellite cut-off elevation angle increases compared with GPS/BDS, which can reach up to 0·9 cm in the vertical direction.
The microbiota–gut–brain axis, especially the microbial tryptophan (Trp) biosynthesis and metabolism pathway (MiTBamp), may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, studies on the MiTBamp in MDD are lacking. The aim of the present study was to analyze the gut microbiota composition and the MiTBamp in MDD patients.
We performed shotgun metagenomic sequencing of stool samples from 26 MDD patients and 29 healthy controls (HCs). In addition to the microbiota community and the MiTBamp analyses, we also built a classification based on the Random Forests (RF) and Boruta algorithm to identify the gut microbiota as biomarkers for MDD.
The Bacteroidetes abundance was strongly reduced whereas that of Actinobacteria was significantly increased in the MDD patients compared with the abundance in the HCs. Most noteworthy, the MDD patients had increased levels of Bifidobacterium, which is commonly used as a probiotic. Four Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) orthologies (KOs) (K01817, K11358, K01626, K01667) abundances in the MiTBamp were significantly lower in the MDD group. Furthermore, we found a negative correlation between the K01626 abundance and the HAMD scores in the MDD group. Finally, RF classification at the genus level can achieve an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.890.
The present findings enabled a better understanding of the changes in gut microbiota and the related Trp pathway in MDD. Alterations of the gut microbiota may have the potential as biomarkers for distinguishing MDD patients form HCs.