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Schizophrenia is a complex mental disorder with high heritability and polygenic inheritance. Multimodal neuroimaging studies have also indicated that abnormalities of brain structure and function are a plausible neurobiological characterisation of schizophrenia. However, the polygenic effects of schizophrenia on these imaging endophenotypes have not yet been fully elucidated.
To investigate the effects of polygenic risk for schizophrenia on the brain grey matter volume and functional connectivity, which are disrupted in schizophrenia.
Genomic and neuroimaging data from a large sample of Han Chinese patients with schizophrenia (N = 509) and healthy controls (N = 502) were included in this study. We examined grey matter volume and functional connectivity via structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, respectively. Using the data from a recent meta-analysis of a genome-wide association study that comprised a large number of Chinese people, we calculated a polygenic risk score (PGRS) for each participant.
The imaging genetic analysis revealed that the individual PGRS showed a significantly negative correlation with the hippocampal grey matter volume and hippocampus–medial prefrontal cortex functional connectivity, both of which were lower in the people with schizophrenia than in the controls. We also found that the observed neuroimaging measures showed weak but similar changes in unaffected first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia.
These findings suggested that genetically influenced brain grey matter volume and functional connectivity may provide important clues for understanding the pathological mechanisms of schizophrenia and for the early diagnosis of schizophrenia.
The influences of non-Oberbeck–Boussinesq (NOB) effects on flow instabilities and bifurcation characteristics of Rayleigh–Bénard convection are examined. The working fluid is air with reference Prandtl number
and contained in two-dimensional rigid cavities of finite aspect ratios. The fluid flow is governed by the low-Mach-number equations, accounting for the NOB effects due to large temperature difference involving flow compressibility and variations of fluid viscosity and thermal conductivity with temperature. The intensity of NOB effects is measured by the dimensionless temperature differential
. Linear stability analysis of the thermal conduction state is performed. An
scaling of the leading-order corrections of critical Rayleigh number
and disturbance growth rate
due to NOB effects is identified, which is a consequence of an intrinsic symmetry of the system. The influences of weak NOB effects on flow instabilities are further studied by perturbation expansion of linear stability equations with regard to
, and then the influence of aspect ratio
is investigated in detail. NOB effects are found to enhance (weaken) flow stability in large (narrow) cavities. Detailed contributions of compressibility, viscosity and buoyancy actions on disturbance kinetic energy growth are identified quantitatively by energy analysis. Besides, a weakly nonlinear theory is developed based on centre-manifold reduction to investigate the NOB influences on bifurcation characteristics near convection onset, and amplitude equations are constructed for both codimension-one and -two cases. Rich bifurcation regimes are observed based on amplitude equations and also confirmed by direct numerical simulation. Weakly nonlinear analysis is useful for organizing and understanding these simulation results.
Flow reversals in two-dimensional Rayleigh–Bénard convection led by non-Oberbeck–Boussinesq (NOB) effects due to large temperature differences are studied by direct numerical simulation. Perfect gas is chosen as the working fluid and the Prandtl number is 0.71 for the reference state. If NOB effects are included, the flow pattern
with only one dominant roll often becomes unstable by the growth of the cold corner roll, which sometimes results in cession-led flow reversals. By exploiting the vorticity transport equation, it is found that the asymmetries of buoyancy and viscous forces are responsible for the growth of the cold corner roll because both such asymmetries cause an imbalance between the corner rolls and the large-scale circulation (LSC). The buoyancy force near the cold wall increases and decreases near the hot wall originating from the temperature-dependent isobaric thermal expansion coefficient
if NOB effects are included. Moreover, the decreased dissipation due to lower viscosity is favourable for the growth of the cold corner roll, while the increased viscosity further suppresses the growth of the hot corner roll. Finally, it is found that the boundary layer near the cold wall plays an important role in the mass transport from LSC to corner rolls subject to mass conservation.
The tin–bismuth eutectic alloy possesses anomalous physicochemical properties that are dependent on temperature. This paper reports the interfacial reaction and growth behavior of the intermetallic compound (IMC) layer during the dissolution of solid copper in liquid eutectic tin–bismuth at 673–823 K under the influence of the structural transition of liquid eutectic tin–bismuth. The structural transition markedly affected the dissolution rate constant of solid copper and the growth rate of the IMCs. Correspondingly, the application of the liquid structural transition significantly decreased the activation energy of dissolution and increased the apparent activation energy for IMC growth. Moreover, two major roles of elemental Bi on the formation and growth of the IMCs were suggested.
Ca0.98Eu0.02Al1−4δ/3Si1+δN3 (δ = 0–0.36) red-emitting phosphors were prepared by carbothermal reduction and nitridation method with stable and inexpensive CaCO3 as Ca source. Optimal nominal composition was obtained at δ = 0.18, showing intense emission peaked at 625 nm and high external quantum efficiency of 71%. The emission wave length could be successfully tuned from 630 to 606 nm with increasing δ value. Ca0.98Eu0.02Al1−4δ/3Si1+δN3 phosphors provided two coordinated environments for Eu2+ ions, resulting in two fitted Gaussian peaks. Energy transfer from Eu2+ sites in Si-rich environments to those in Si/Al-equivalent modes has been confirmed by analysis of the decay curve of each peak. The decay behaviors suggested that energy transfer effect slowed with higher δ value. Finally, warm white light was created by combining as-prepared red-emitting Ca0.98Eu0.02Al0.76Si1.18N3 and yellow-emitting YAG:Ce3+ phosphors with a blue-emitting chip, exhibiting a color rendering index Ra of 91 at a low correlated color temperature of 3500 K with a luminous efficiency of 79 lm/W.
In this paper we report a large-scale developmental study of early productive vocabulary acquisition by 928 Chinese-speaking children aged between 1;0 and 2;6, using the Early Vocabulary Inventory for Mandarin Chinese (Hao, Shu, Xing & Li, 2008). The results show that: (i) social words, especially words for people, are the predominant type of words in Chinese-speaking children's earliest productive vocabulary; (ii) overall, Chinese-speaking children's vocabulary contains greater proportions of nouns than other word categories, especially at the earliest vocabulary stage; and (iii) verbs tend to appear earlier for Chinese-speaking children as compared with English-speaking children at the same levels of vocabulary development. In addition, our study has identified the underlying variables that influence the age of acquisition of words, specifically, the interplay between the conceptual (imageability) and linguistic properties (word frequency, word length, and grammatical category) that jointly shape the development of Mandarin-speaking children's early vocabulary.
In the present work, both computational and experimental methods are employed to study the two-phase flow occurring in a model pump sump. The two-fluid model of the two-phase flow has been applied to the simulation of the three-dimensional cavitating flow. The governing equations of the two-phase cavitating flow are derived from the kinetic theory based on the Boltzmann equation. The isotropic RNG k — ε — kca turbulence model of two-phase flows in the form of cavity number instead of the form of cavity phase volume fraction is developed. The RNG k—ε—kca turbulence model, that is the RNG k — e turbulence model for the liquid phase combined with the kca model for the cavity phase, is employed to close the governing turbulent equations of the two-phase flow. The computation of the cavitating flow through a model pump sump has been carried out with this model in three-dimensional spaces. The calculated results have been compared with the data of the PIV experiment. Good qualitative agreement has been achieved which exhibits the reliability of the numerical simulation model.
Retinal ganglion cell line (RGC-5) has been widely used as a valuable model for studying pathophysiology and physiology of retinal ganglion cells in vitro. However, the electrophysiological characteristics, especially a thorough classification of ionic currents in the cell line, remain to be elucidated in details. In the present study, we determined the resting membrane potential (RMP) in RGC-5 cell line and then identified different types of ionic currents by using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. The RMP recorded in the cell line was between −30 and −6 mV (−17.6 ± 2.6 mV, n = 10). We observed the following voltage-gated ion channel currents: (1) inwardly rectifying Cl− current (ICl,ir), which could be blocked by Zn2+; (2) Ca2+-activated Cl− current (ICl,Ca), which was sensitive to extracellular Ca2+ and could be inhibited by disodium 4,4’-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2’-disulfonate; (3) inwardly rectifying K+ currents (IK1), which could be blocked by Ba2+; (4) a small amount of delayed rectifier K+ current (IK). On the other hand, the voltage-gated sodium channels current (INa) and transient outward potassium channels current (IA) were not observed in this cell line. These results further characterize the ionic currents in the RGC-5 cell line and are beneficial for future studies especially on ion channel (patho)physiology and pharmacology in the RGC-5 cell line.
An in-depth exploration of the associations of two aspects of morphological awareness in Chinese—homophone awareness and lexical compounding awareness—to Chinese word reading and vocabulary knowledge was the primary focus of the present study. Among 154 9-year-old Hong Kong Chinese children, both lexical compounding and homophone awareness were significantly associated with word reading (r = .54 for compounding, r = .38 for homophones) and vocabulary knowledge (r = .41 for compounding, r = .53 for homophones). However, with autoregressors additionally statistically controlled, homophone awareness remained uniquely associated with vocabulary but not word reading; lexical compounding was uniquely associated with both word reading and vocabulary. Path analyses best illustrated this pattern. Both morphological awareness constructs are likely bidirectionally associated with word reading and vocabulary knowledge. However, homophone awareness is more centrally associated with vocabulary knowledge because it taps specific, existing morpheme knowledge. In contrast, lexical compounding requires structural understanding of one's language, which seems to be helpful for both learning to read and vocabulary acquisition in Chinese.
Fusion of nucleoli or nucleolus precursor bodies (NPBs) has been observed during somatic cell interphase and pronuclear development of human zygotes; however, the underlying mechanism is unknown. NPB fusion and its regulation by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and maturation-promoting factor (MPF) were studied in activated mouse oocytes. Small NPBs appeared about 4 h after ethanol activation, and took about 1.5 h to fuse into a large NPB, which persisted for about 10 h before disappearance. Analysis of the temporal windows for kinase action indicated that a high MAPK activity during the first 2 h and a low MPF activity during the first 3–4 h after activation were essential for subsequent NPB fusion. A preactivation decline in MAPK activity was associated with decreased NPB fusion following activation of aged oocytes. While MAPK inactivation by regulator U0126 prevented NPB fusion in oocytes activated by ethanol or 5 min Sr2+ treatments, it had no effect on oocytes fertilized or activated by 6 h Sr2+ treatment. In most cases, while rates of pronuclear formation did not differ, rates of NPB fusion differed significantly between different treatments. Our results suggest that: (i) the MAPK and MPF activities at the initial stage of activation regulate NPB fusion after pronuclear formation; (ii) pronuclear assembly and NPB fusion are two separable events that might be controlled by different mechanisms; and (iii) high MAPK activity and low MPF activity at the initial stage of activation is essential for NPB fusion when only one calcium rise is induced by ethanol, while inhibition of MAPK activity does not affect NPB fusion when the repetitive intracellular Ca2+ rises are induced after fertilization.
In this study we examined ERP (event-related-potential) responses in the morphosyntactic processing of subject–verb agreements by L2 Chinese learners of English. Fifteen proficient L2 learners and fifteen native English speakers were presented with English sentences that varied in the grammaticality of the sentence with respect to subject–verb agreement. Our results indicate that late L2 learners show distinct ERP responses from native speakers in the processing of syntactic features that are absent in their L1, even when their behavioral patterns are similar to those of native speakers. The results are taken to support the proposal that language-specific experiences with L1 shape the neural structure of processing in L2.
This study used three winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes (H6756, H311 and SP8581) to compare the effects of sampling time, callus induction media, differentiation media and rooting media on in vitro culture of young spikes in wheat. In all these three genotypes, the frequencies of green plantlet differentiation were high when their young spikes were cultured between the stages of protective glume primordium formation and pistil and stamen primordium formation, but low at other stages. The optimum medium for callus induction was Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium+2 mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). The optimum green plantlet differentiation medium was MS medium. Some abnormal plantlets regenerated from calli. When these plantlets were transferred to another differentiation medium [MS+1.0 mg/l 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA)+0.2 mg/l 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA)], shoot formation and elongation were induced. This allowed 90.91% of them to develop into normal green plantlets. The optimum rooting medium was 1/2MS+0.2 mg/l 3-Indolylacetonitrile (IAA)+80 g/l sucrose. An efficient regeneration system for young spike culture of wheat was set up based on such methods. Using this wheat-regeneration system, young spikes and immature embryos of 17 genotypes of wheat were in vitro cultured to study and compare the callus induction frequencies and green plantlet differentiation frequencies. The results of two successive years showed that in 15 out of the 17 genotypes (88.24%) the green plantlet differentiation frequencies were higher than those of immature embryos by 6.2–65.1%. These results showed that the regeneration system established in this trial for young spike culture of wheat was effective.
The term ‘dead-end trap cropping’ has recently been proposed to identify a plant that is highly attractive for oviposition by an insect pest, but on which offspring of the pest cannot survive. The potential of the wild crucifer Barbarea vulgaris R. Br. to allure and serve as a dead-end trap crop for the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (L.), an important pest of cruciferous crops worldwide, was examined in laboratory experiments. When P. xylostella adults were provided with a dual-choice of plants of B. vulgaris, and Chinese cabbage Brassica campestris (L.), in one arena, adult moths laid 2.5–6.8 times more eggs on the former than on the latter. When P. xylostella adults were provided with a dual-choice of plants of B. vulgaris and common cabbage Brassica oleracea L., adult moths laid virtually all their eggs on the former and ignored the latter. Nearly all P. xylostella eggs laid on the three species of plants hatched successfully, but nearly all individuals on plants of B. vulgaris died as neonates or early instar larvae, while 87–100% of the larvae on Chinese cabbage and common cabbage survived to pupation. Dual choice tests with a Y-tube olfactometer showed that volatiles from B. vulgaris were much more attractive to P. xylostella adults than those from common cabbage. The results demonstrate that B. vulgaris has a great potential as a dead-end trap crop for improving management of P. xylostella. Factors that may influence the feasibility of using B. vulgaris as a trap crop in the field are discussed, and ways to utilize this plant are proposed.
The ichneumonid Diadromus collaris (Gravenhorst) has been recorded in many parts of the world as an important parasitoid of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus), a serious pest of brassica vegetable crops worldwide. Some aspects of its biology and its interactions with Oomyzus sokolowskii(Kurdjumov), another major parasitoid of the same pest, were studied in the laboratory. At 25°C, female wasps did not have mature eggs in their ovaries until about 12 h after emergence. Both males and females mated successfully 24–48 h after emergence, and females started to oviposit one to two days after emergence. Unmated females produced male progeny only; mated females produced progeny of both sexes. The development rate of the parasitoid increased linearly with temperature from 15 to 30°C, with an estimated low temperature threshold of 7.4°C and a thermal constant of 225.1 day-degrees for development from egg to adulthood. Rates of survival from larva to adulthood were about 90% between 20 and 28°C and decreased as temperature decreased or increased. No immatures survived to adulthood at 35°C. When provided with honey solution, the females lived on average 8.3, 11.5 and 7.0 days, and parasitized 26, 44 and 46 host pupae at 20, 25 and 30°C, respectively. Female wasps could be stored at 15°C for up to four weeks without detrimental effects on reproduction. Females of D. collaris attacked host pupae already parasitized by O. sokolowskii, inserting their ovipositor into the hosts at a similar frequency as into unparasitized host pupae, but they did not lay eggs inside the hosts.
An investigation of insect parasitoids of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella(Linnaeus), in brassica vegetable crops in the suburbs of Hangzhou was conducted during five periods from 1989 to 1997. Eight species of primary parasitoids were recorded: Trichogramma chilonis Ishii, Cotesia plutellae Kurdjumov, Microplitis sp., Oomyzus sokolowskii Kurdjumov, Diadromus collaris(Gravenhorst), Itoplectis naranyae (Ashmead), Exochus sp. and Brachymeria excarinata Gahan. Seven species of hyperparasitoids were also collected. Rates of parasitism of eggs of P. xylostella were usually very low. However, rates of parasitism of larvae and pupae were substantial and showed two peaks each year, around June–July and September–November respectively. Rates of parasitism during peaks were usually 10–60% and reached over 80% on a few occasions. Cotesia plutellae, O. sokolowskii and D. collaris were the major larval, larval-pupal and pupal parasitoids respectively. In the field, C. plutellae was active throughout the year. Oomyzus sokolowskii was active from May to October, entered a quiescent pupal stage in October–November to overwinter and did not emerge until next April–May. Diadromus collariswas recorded from April to July and October. Rates of parasitism of P. xylostellain radish and mustard fields were usually higher than those in cabbage and Chinese cabbage fields in the same locality. Negative correlations of parasitism rates between C. plutellae and O. sokolowskii indicate a competitive relationship for host larvae between these two larval parasitoids.
In an attempt to refine calibration procedures for greenhouse spray chambers, the effects of an herbicide adjuvant, operating pressure, and travel speed on the static and dynamic spray patterns of single flat-fan hydraulic nozzle tips were studied. The volume output in the central 15 cm of the spray pattern (where target plants would ordinarily be positioned) was used as an indicator of the relative dosages received from both a tapered flat-fan tip (8001 VS) and an even-spray tip (8001 EVS). All tested variables significantly altered the spray pattern. Specifically, dynamic spray patterns differed from static patterns, and speed of travel affected the dynamic pattern for both tapered and even flat-fan sprays. Increasing the travel speed from 0.375 to 0.75 m/s reduced spray deposit in the central 15 cm of the spray pattern by up to 19% for water, and by up to 34% for water containing 0.1% v/v nonionic surfactant. Increasing surfactant concentration to 1% decreased the magnitude of the speed effect. Higher pressure sprays tended to reduce the effect of increased travel speeds. These results show that changes in physicochemical properties of the spray solution as well as air turbulence introduced by nozzle movement can affect the pesticide dosage to which a target plant is exposed in a spray chamber. For proper treatment comparison, delivery systems for greenhouse spray experiments should be calibrated with end-use spray liquids, operating pressures, and nozzle travel speeds.
When herbicide concentration was constant, absorption of 14C-glyphosate increased with increasing droplet size (326 to 977 μm). Amount of 14C-glyphosate translocated away from the treated area, expressed as percent of absorbed, increased as droplet size decreased. Herbicide concentration of the droplet was more important than droplet number or droplet size in determining glyphosate absorption and translocation. Absorption and translocation increased with increasing herbicide concentration regardless of whether droplet size or number was altered in conjunction with herbicide concentration. This relationship explained why low spray volume (increased herbicide concentration) increased herbicide efficacy. The concentration gradient between droplet and leaf, rather than droplet coverage, was the primary mechanism responsible for the observed effect. Large droplets caused localized tissue injury, which may have caused decreased translocation.
Studies determined the effect of sodium bisulfate (NaHSO4) on the phytotoxicity, retention, uptake, and translocation of the suspension concentrate formulation of imazamethabenz in wild oats. NaHSO4 completely solubilized this herbicide formulation when added in an equimolar concentration and did not affect herbicidal activity at NaHSO4 concentrations below 28 mM when used in a carrier volume of 100 L ha−1. NaHSO4 improved phytotoxicity at a carrier volume of 33 L ha−1. NaHSO4 at 28 mM increased the efficacy of imazamethabenz applied as individual drops on growth chamber-grown wild oats. The herbicide retention was not changed but foliar absorption and acropetal translocation were increased, while basipetal translocation was decreased. The increase in phytotoxicity of imazamethabenz with NaHSO4 was related to absorption of imazamethabenz by the target plants.
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