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The salt intake of Japanese at home remains high. To aid in salt reduction and encourage a balanced diet, we conducted a cross-sectional study using data from a previous clinical trial in community-dwelling individuals to evaluate major salt sources and relationships among the intake of different dishes in the Japanese diet at home. Dietary records and urinary salt excretion measurements were performed daily for 1 month in seventy-nine participants. The records were classified into six grain dish categories as staple dishes, seven side dish categories and a snack category. Regression analyses were used to estimate (1) salt intake per meal for each category of grain dish, (2) salt intake per dish from each dish category and its contribution to the total salt intake and (3) the influence of grain dish selection on the frequencies of other dishes. Salt intake per meal was approximately 3 g, regardless of grain dish selection. Fish and meat dishes showed the largest contribution to the total salt intake (35 %), followed by vegetable dishes (19 %). The intake of fish or meat and vegetables was promoted by plain rice and reduced by ramen noodles. The intake of dairy products was only promoted by bread, while that of fruits was not influenced by any grain dish category. These results suggest simple strategies to reduce salt intake while maintaining dietary balance, such as eating plain rice more often and using less salt to cook meat/fish and vegetable dishes.
PLANET-B is an ISAS spacecraft which will investigate the upper atmosphere and the surroundings of Mars between 1999 and 2001 To clarify the presence and characteristics of the Martian dust ring/torus, an impact ionization dust detector will be on board PLANET-B The detector (PLANET B Mars Dust Counter), which is an improved version of the Munich Dust Counters of HITEN and BREMSAT, will weigh only 630g with an aperture area 140cm2. The detectable mass range will be between 10-16g and more than 10-6g and the velocity range will be from 1km/s to more than 70km/s. Since PLANET-B executes retrograde elliptic orbits close to the zodiacal plane, our detector can investigate the spatial distribution of prograde dust particles from Phobos and Deimos with relative encounter velocity as large as or higher than 1km/s. PLANET-B MDC shall also measure the dust environment around the Earth and interplanetary and possibly interstellar dust particles.
Recent theoretical studies show that orbits of circummartian dust particles are controlled by solar radiation pressure and the Martian oblateness. Smaller dust particles (< 22μm) with enhanced orbital eccentricity are quickly captured by Mars. We find that the collisions of ring particles with Phobos and Deimos are the most important dust sources. Erosion of Phobos should set the upper limit on the dust production efficiency controlling this self-sustaining mechanism, and then the ring dust abundance.
Off-disk implantation of ancient solar wind into a protoplanetary dust cloud can explain the present amounts of solar-type noble gases in gas-rich meteorites and Venus, even if the dust cloud is very opaque along its midplane.
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