Metcalfe's Law: “The value of a network grows as the square of the number of its users.”Robert Metcalfe
Network interfaces and interface configuration.
Network load and statistics.
The Address Resolution Protocol and its operations.
ICMP messages and Ping.
Concept of subnetting.
Duplicate IP addresses and incorrect subnet masks.
Local area networks
Generally there are two types of networks: point-to-point networks or broadcast networks. A point-to-point network consists of two end hosts connected by a link, whereas in a broadcast network, a number of stations share a common transmission medium. Usually, a point-to-point network is used for long-distance connections, e.g., dialup connections and SONET/SDH links. Local area networks are almost all broadcast networks, e.g., Ethernet or wireless local area networks (LANs).
The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) is a data link protocol for PPP LANs. The main purpose of PPP is encapsulation and transmission of IP datagrams, or other network layer protocol data, over a serial link. Currently, most dial-up Internet access services are provided using PPP.
PPP consists of two types of protocols. The Link Control Protocol (LCP) of PPP is responsible for establishing, configuring, and negotiating the datalink connection, while for each network layer protocol supported by PPP, there is a Network Control Protocol (NCP). For example, the IP Control Protocol (IPCP) is used for transmitting IP datagrams over a PPP link. Once the link is successfully established, the network layer data, i.e., IP datagrams, are encapsulate in PPP frames and transmitted over the serial link.