The present study investigated the effect of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae meal (BSF) on haemolymph biochemical indicators, muscle metabolites as well as the lipid and glucose metabolism of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Four diets were formulated in which the control diet contained 25 % of fishmeal (FM) and 10 % (BSF10), 20 % (BSF20), and 30 % (BSF30) of FM protein were replaced with BSF. Four hundred and eighty shrimp (0·88 ± 0·00 g) were distributed to four groups of three replicates and fed for 7 weeks. Results showed that growth performance of shrimp fed BSF30 significantly decreased compared with those fed FM, but there was no significant difference in survival among groups. The whole shrimp crude lipid content, haemolymph TAG and total cholesterol were decreased with the increasing BSF inclusion. The results of metabolomics showed that the metabolite patterns of shrimp fed different diets were altered, with significant changes in metabolites related to lipid metabolism, glucose metabolism as well as TCA cycle. The mRNA expressions of hk, pfk, pk, pepck, ampk, mcd, cpt-1 and scd1 in hepatopancreas were downregulated in shrimp fed BSF30, but mRNA expression of acc1 was upregulated. Unlike BSF30, the mRNA expressions of fas, cpt-1, fbp and 6pgd in hepatopancreas were upregulated in shrimp fed BSF20. This study indicates that BSF20 diet promoted lipid synthesis and lipolysis, while BSF30 diet weakened β-oxidation and glycolysis as well as affected the unsaturated fatty acids synthesis, which may affect the growth performance and body composition of shrimp.