To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Transient monocular visual loss is the most important visual symptom of arteriosclerotic vascular disease, arteritis and states of altered coagulability, and thrombocytosis. In most patients, the visual abnormality during each individual attack of visual loss is stereotypic. Visual loss occurrence is divided into four types. Type I is due to transient retinal ischemia, type II to retinal vascular insufficiency, and type III to vasospasm. Type IV occurs in association with antiphospholipid antibodies but includes cases of unknown etiology. Sudden monocular blindness is the major symptom of an ocular stroke causing permanent visual loss. The ocular strokes discussed are: central retinal artery (CRA) occlusion, ophthalmic artery (OA) occlusion, branch retinal artery (BRA) occlusion, and ischemic optic neuropathy (ION), which is the result of infarction of the optic nerve. Blindness can result from infarction of the retina or the optic nerve.
Temporary loss of vision in one eye, termed transient monocular blindness (TMB), is the most important visual symptom of arteriosclerotic vascular disease, arteritis and states of altered coagulability, and thrombocytosis. In most patients, the visual disturbance during each individual attack of TMB is stereotypic. It may recur over a period of months or over a much briefer span of hours, days, or weeks. A meticulous history of the attack and duration of the visual disturbance will permit classification of the TMB occurrence into one of four types. Type I is due to transient retinal ischemia, type II to retinal vascular insufficiency and type III to vasospasm. Type IV occurs in association with antiphospholipid antibodies but includes cases of unknown etiology (Table 9.1 (Wray, 1988; Burde, 1989)).
TMB type I
TMB type I is characterized by a sudden, brief attack of partial or complete dimming or obscuration of vision, lasting seconds to minutes, followed by total recovery. Partial impairment is described as a greyout, or as an ascending or descending curtain or a blind moving sideways across the eye. Occasionally, the patient will describe moving tracks of light. Ipsilateral headache is rare (Wilson et al., 1979). Fisher (1952) drew attention to the association of TMB of this brevity with contralateral hemiplegia. Episodic attacks of fleeting blindness occur as arteriosclerotic plaques progressively narrow the lumen of the ipsilateral internal carotid artery (ICA), leading to periodic reduction in blood flow, reduced pressure in the ophthalmic artery, transient ocular ischemia, or vascular insufficiency.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.