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Reported per-patient costs of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) vary by 2 orders of magnitude among different hospitals, implying that infection control officers need precise, local analyses to guide rational decision making between interventions.
We sought to comprehensively estimate changes in length of stay (LOS) attributable to CDI at a single urban tertiary-care facility using only data automatically extractable from the electronic medical record (EMR).
We performed a retrospective cohort study of 171,938 visits spanning a 7-year period. In total, 23,968 variables were extracted from EMR data recorded within 24 hours of admission to train elastic-net regularized logistic regression models for propensity score matching. To address time-dependent bias (reverse causation), we separately stratified comparisons by time of infection, and we fit multistate models.
The estimated difference in median LOS for propensity-matched cohorts varied from 3.1 days (95% CI, 2.2–3.9) to 10.1 days (95% CI, 7.3–12.2) depending on the case definition; however, dependency of the estimate on time to infection was observed. Stratification by time to first positive toxin assay, excluding probable community-acquired infections, showed a minimum excess LOS of 3.1 days (95% CI, 1.7–4.4). Under the same case definition, the multistate model averaged an excess LOS of 3.3 days (95% CI, 2.6–4.0).
In this study, 2 independent time-to-infection adjusted methods converged on similar excess LOS estimates. Changes in LOS can be extrapolated to marginal dollar costs by multiplying by average costs of an inpatient day. Infection control officers can leverage automatically extractable EMR data to estimate costs of CDI at their own institutions.
Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae is an emerging healthcare-associated pathogen.
To describe the epidemiology of and clinical outcomes associated with carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae infection and to identify risk factors associated with mortality among patients with this type of infection.
Mount Sinai Hospital, a 1,171-bed tertiary care teaching hospital in New York City.
Two matched case-control studies.
In the first matched case-control study, case patients with carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae infection were compared with control patients with carbapenem-susceptible K. pneumoniae infection. In the second case-control study, patients who survived carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae infection were compared with those who did not survive, to identify risk factors associated with mortality among patients with carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae infection.
There were 99 case patients and 99 control patients identified. Carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae infection was independently associated with recent organ or stem-cell transplantation (P = .008), receipt of mechanical ventilation (P = .04), longer length of stay before infection (P = .01), and exposure to cephalosporins (P = .02) and carbapenems (P < .001). Case patients were more likely than control patients to die during hospitalization (48% vs 20%; P < .001) and to die from infection (38% vs 12%; P < .001). Removal of the focus of infection (ie, debridement) was independently associated with patient survival (P = .002). The timely administration of antibiotics with in vitro activity against carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae was not associated with patient survival.
Carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae infection is associated with numerous healthcare-related risk factors and with high mortality. The mortality rate associated with carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae infection and the limited antimicrobial options for treatment of carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae infection highlight the need for improved detection of carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae infection, identification of effective preventive measures, and development of novel agents with reliable clinical efficacy against carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae.
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