The post-operative outcome of hearing, the reconstructed external auditory canal, and the state of the reconstructed middle-ear cavity after canal wall down tympanoplasty with canal and attico-antrum reconstruction was studied in 103 ears with middle-ear cholesteatoma. The reconstructed mastoid cavity was re-aerated in 36.5 per cent of the cases, which was significantly lower than for the epitympanum (63.5 per cent) and tympanic cavity (82.4 per cent). Tympanoplasty was successful in terms of hearing results in 68.9 per cent of all subjects and in 75.4 per cent of the ears having a re-aerated tympanic cavity, which was significantly better than the 38.5 per cent for ears in which the tympanic cavity was not re-aerated. The findings of recurrent cholesteatoma, tympanic atelectasis, and tympanic effusion were observed with significantly (p<0.03) high incidence in ears with no re-aerated space in their reconstructed mastoid cavities. It was revealed that the post-operative outcome of this surgical technique was significantly related to the state of re-aeration of the reconstructed middle-ear cavity.