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The prefrontal deficits in psychiatric disorders have been investigated using functional neuroimaging tools; however, no studies have tested the related characteristics across psychiatric disorders considering various demographic and clinical confounders.
We analyzed 1558 functional brain measurements using a functional near-infrared spectroscopy during a verbal fluency task from 1200 participants with three disease spectra [196 schizophrenia, 189 bipolar disorder (BPD), and 394 major depressive disorder (MDD)] and 369 healthy controls along with demographic characteristics (age, gender, premorbid IQ, and handedness), task performance during the measurements, clinical assessments, and medication equivalent doses (chlorpromazine, diazepam, biperiden, and imipramine) in a consistent manner. The association between brain functions and demographic and clinical variables was tested using a general linear mixed model (GLMM). Then, the direction of relationship between brain activity and symptom severity, controlling for any other associations, was estimated using a model comparison of structural equation models (SEMs).
The GLMM showed a shared functional deficit of brain activity and a schizophrenia-specific delayed activity timing in the prefrontal cortex (false discovery rate-corrected p < 0.05). Comparison of SEMs showed that brain activity was associated with the global assessment of functioning scores in the left inferior frontal gyrus opercularis (IFGOp) in BPD group and the bilateral superior temporal gyrus and middle temporal gyrus, and the left superior frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus triangularis, and IFGOp in MDD group.
This cross-disease large-sample neuroimaging study with high-quality clinical data reveals a robust relationship between prefrontal function and behavioral outcomes across three major psychiatric disorders.
This chapter comprises the following sections: names, taxonomy, subspecies and distribution, descriptive notes, habitat, movements and home range, activity patterns, feeding ecology, reproduction and growth, behavior, parasites and diseases, status in the wild, and status in captivity.
The mating system and mating strategies of a species refer to the behavioral strategies used to obtain reproductive partners and ensure reproductive success. Common determining factors of mating systems and strategies are: the manner of mate acquisition, the number of mates obtained by an individual, as well as the absence or presence and duration of parental care. In mammals, the energetic investments in gametes and rearing offspring are typically larger for females than for males. Mate selection is thus a much more important decision for females than for the rather indiscriminate males. This dichotomy results in sexual selection, which in turn is determined by male–male competition for access to females, as well as female mate choice. Because receptive females are generally considered the limiting resource in reproduction, males face intrasexual competition for mates. In a multitude of mammalian species, including bears, this has resulted in pronounced sexual size dimorphism and polygamous mating systems. Despite common characteristics (e.g. sexual size dimorphism, polygamy), variation in mating systems and strategies occur among bear populations and species.
Mental health-related stigma is a major challenge associated with the huge mental health treatment gap. It has remained unclear what kind of educational content is effective in reducing the stigma. Whether biomedical messages (BMM) about mental illness are effective or harmful in decreasing stigma is controversial. To investigate whether BMM can improve practically useful knowledge of mental illness, comparably to recommended messages (RCM) advocated by experts, of types such as ‘recovery-oriented’, ‘social inclusion/human rights’ and ‘high prevalence of mental illnesses’ through a randomised controlled trial (RCT).
This study is an individual-level RCT with a parallel-group design over 1 year, conducted in Tokyo, Japan. A total of 179 participants (males n = 80, mean age = 21.9 years and s.d. = 7.8) were recruited in high schools and universities, and through a commercial internet advertisement in June and July 2017, without any indication that the study appertained to mental health. Participants were allocated to the BMM and RCM groups. They underwent a 10-min intervention, and completed self-report questionnaires during baseline, post-test, 1-month follow-up and 1-year follow-up surveys. The primary outcome measures were practically useful knowledge of mental illness at the post-test survey using the Mental Illness and Disorder Understanding Scale (MIDUS). Analysis was conducted in October 2018.
Both groups demonstrated improved MIDUS score in the post-test survey, and showed similar intervention effects (F(1, 177) = 160.5, p < 0.001, η2 = 0.48). The effect of the interventions continued until the 1-year follow-up survey (B [95% CI] = −2.56 [−4.27, −0.85], p < 0.01), and showed no difference between groups. The reported adverse effect that BMM increase stigma was not confirmed.
BMM may have a positive impact on stigma, comparable to RCM. These findings may encourage reconsideration of the content of messages about mental health, as it is indicated that combining BMM and RCM might contribute to an effective anti-stigma programme.
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