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There are some existing barriers posed by neuropsychological tests that interfere with the assessment of cognitive functioning by staff who work in long-term care facilities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of assessing cognitive function through conversation.
A total of 100 care staff was randomly selected as participants. Each staff member evaluated cognitive function in one to three residents using the Conversational Assessment of Neurocognitive Dysfunction (CANDy), which is a screening test for dementia using conversation. Other scales used were the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Behavioral Pathology in Alzheimer’ s Disease (BEHAVE-AD), and quality-of-life questionnaire for the elderly with dementia (QOL-D).
A total of 80 care staff members and 158 residents were analyzed. When the CANDy involved an evaluation based on face-to-face communication, it demonstrated significant correlations with the MMSE, BEHAVE-AD, and several indices of the QOL-D (e.g. negative affect and actions, communication ability, restless, and spontaneity and activity). In contrast, when the CANDy involved an evaluation based on an impression of a typical conversation, it only demonstrated significant relationships with the MMSE and the spontaneity and activity index of the QOL-D.
Conversational assessment is a useful means to assess cognitive functioning and to promote interactions between residents and care staff in long-term care facilities.
The Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011 may have influenced the long-term health of those in the disaster area. It is important to collect current and future health information of the people living in the post-disaster area to provide appropriate health support and quality-oriented care. However, public perceptions of health and genomic studies in the Great East Japan Earthquake disaster area are still unknown.
A questionnaire survey was conducted in one town affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake and subsequent tsunami. The results of the questionnaire were tailed and the differences in responses to each question were assessed by sex and age.
In 284 eligible people (137 men, 147 women), almost all participants agreed to join a health survey investigating the adverse effects of the disaster, and over 80% of the total participants agreed to genomic analysis. Over 70% of the participants wanted to receive pharmacogenetic testing and to receive feedback on which medications were suitable or unsuitable for them.
Most people living in the disaster area are interested in health surveys. Most of the participants also showed interest in genomic analysis.
IshikuroM, NakayaN, ObaraT, SatoY, MetokiH, KikuyaM, TsuchiyaN, NakamuraT, NagamiF, KuriyamaS, HozawaA, the ToMMo Study Group. Public Attitudes toward an Epidemiological Study with Genomic Analysis in the Great East Japan Earthquake Disaster Area. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(3):330–334.
To investigate long-term trends in dietary intakes of vitamins A, C and E in Japanese adults.
Time series by community-based nutrition survey.
Two rural communities (Ikawa and Kyowa) between 1974 and 2001 in Japan.
A total of 3713 men and 3726 women aged 40–69 years.
Dietary intake data were collected by the 24 h dietary recall.
In Ikawa, mean intake of vitamin A (β-carotene and retinol) increased by 13–40 %; vitamins C and E increased by approximately 23–33 % among men and women from 1974–1977 to 1998–2000. In Kyowa, mean intake of vitamin A, primarily retinol, increased by 13–21 % among men and women; vitamin C from fruits decreased by 16 % among men; and vitamin E increased by 29 % among women from 1982–1986 to 1998–2001. Mean intake of vitamin E in the latest survey period was lower than the Adequate Intake among men and women in both communities. Generally, there were increased intakes of β-carotene and vitamin C from green/yellow and other vegetables; increased retinol intake from fish/shellfish, eggs, milk/dairy products and fats/oils; and increased vitamin E intake from green/yellow and other vegetables, fish/shellfish, eggs, milk/dairy products and fats/oils.
Mean intakes of the antioxidant vitamins A, C and E increased among middle-aged Japanese men and women between the 1970s and the 1990s except for decreased vitamin C among Kyowa men. The lower mean intake of vitamin E than the Adequate Intake should be considered a potential public health issue for the prevention of CVD.
Adequate fruit and vegetable intake has been suggested to protect against colorectal cancer. However, several recent prospective studies have reported no association. We therefore examined the association between fruit and vegetable intakes and the risk of colorectal cancer in a prospective cohort study in Japan.
Between June and August 1990, 47 605 Japanese men and women completed a self-administered questionnaire, including a food-frequency questionnaire. We divided the subjects into quartiles based on their self-reported fruit and vegetable consumption. There were 165 colon cancer and 110 rectal cancer incidences identified during 7 years of follow-up, to the end of December 1997. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate the relative risk (RR) of developing colorectal cancer according to the level of fruit and vegetable consumption, applying adjustments for potential confounders.
No statistically significant association was observed between fruit and vegetable consumption and the risk of colorectal cancer. The multivariate RR of colon cancer in the highest quartile of fruit and vegetable intake compared with the lowest was 1.13 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.73–1.75), the RR for vegetables alone was 1.24 (95% CI 0.79–1.95) and that for fruit alone was 1.45 (95% CI 0.85–2.47). The corresponding multivariate RRs for rectal cancer were 1.12 (95% CI 0.67–1.89), 1.14 (95% CI 0.67–1.93) and 1.41 (95% CI 0.73–2.73).
We found no association between the consumption of fruit and vegetables and the risk of colorectal cancer among the Japanese population.
A survey of Angiostrongylus cantonensis was carried out to investigate the mode of transmission from molluse to rat in a fixed study area of Yoron Island from 1979 to 1982. Rattus rattus was found to be infected with a small number of worms in spite of heavy infection with third-stage larvae in Achatina fulica and an abundance of this snail in the area. Natural infection and/or susceptibility with A. cantonensis were confirmed in three small snail species. Bradybaena circulus, Fruticicola despecta and Luchuena reticulata. Young A. fulica was found to be infected with fewer third-stage larvae than mature A. fulica. It was concluded that molluscs which were infected with a small number of third-stage larvae of A. cantonensis play an important role in maintaining the life cycle of A. cantonensis. The percentage of rat stomachs containing molluse tissue was relatively low, and the incidence and infection was low in rats. Infection with A. cantonensis did not occur very often in R. rattus in nature.
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