Materials design for transparent p-type conducting oxides was extended to oxysulfide system. LaCuOS was selected as a candidate for a transparent p-type semiconductor. It was found that the electrical conductivity of LaCuOS was p-type and controllable from semiconducting to semi-metallic states by substituting Sr2+ for La3+. LaCuOS films showed high transparency in the visible region, and the bandgap estimated was approximately 3.1 eV. Moreover, it was revealed that LaCuOS showed sharp excitonic absorption and emission at the bandgap edge, which is advantageous for optical applications. A layered oxysulfide, LaCuOS, was proposed to be a promising material for optoelectronic devices.