The widespread, rapid evolution of herbicide-resistant weeds is a serious and escalating agronomic problem worldwide. During China’s economic boom, it has become one of the most important herbicide-producing and -consuming countries in the world; meanwhile, herbicide resistance has dramatically increased in the past decade and become a serious threat to its agriculture. Here, following an evidence-based PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) approach, we carried out a systematic review to quantitatively assess the herbicide resistance in China. Multiple weed species, including 26, 18, 11, 9, 5, 5, 4, and 3 species in rice (Oryza sativa L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], corn (Zea mays L.), canola (Brassica napus L.), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)., orchards, and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) fields have developed herbicide resistance. Acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitors, acetylCoA carboxylase (ACCase) inhibitors and synthetic auxin herbicides are the most prone to resistance and are the leading mode of action, followed by 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate (EPSP) synthase inhibitor and protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO) inhibitors herbicides. The lack of alternative herbicides to manage weeds that exhibit cross-resistance or multiple resistance (or both) presents an emerging issue and posts one of the greatest treats challenging the crop production and food safety in China, as well as the world.