To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
We report the utility of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) conducted in a clinically relevant time frame (ie, sufficient for guiding management decision), in managing a Streptococcus pyogenes outbreak, and present a comparison of its performance with emm typing.
A 2,000-bed tertiary-care psychiatric hospital.
Active surveillance was conducted to identify new cases of S. pyogenes. WGS guided targeted epidemiological investigations, and infection control measures were implemented. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)–based genome phylogeny, emm typing, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were performed. We compared the ability of WGS and emm typing to correctly identify person-to-person transmission and to guide the management of the outbreak.
The study included 204 patients and 152 staff. We identified 35 patients and 2 staff members with S. pyogenes. WGS revealed polyclonal S. pyogenes infections with 3 genetically distinct phylogenetic clusters (C1–C3). Cluster C1 isolates were all emm type 4, sequence type 915 and had pairwise SNP differences of 0–5, which suggested recent person-to-person transmissions. Epidemiological investigation revealed that cluster C1 was mediated by dermal colonization and transmission of S. pyogenes in a male residential ward. Clusters C2 and C3 were genomically diverse, with pairwise SNP differences of 21–45 and 26–58, and emm 11 and mostly emm120, respectively. Clusters C2 and C3, which may have been considered person-to-person transmissions by emm typing, were shown by WGS to be unlikely by integrating pairwise SNP differences with epidemiology.
WGS had higher resolution than emm typing in identifying clusters with recent and ongoing person-to-person transmissions, which allowed implementation of targeted intervention to control the outbreak.
The present study investigates the relationship between BMI and all-cause mortality among middle-aged and older adults with or without pre-existing diseases.
A population-based cohort study.
The Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging is a nationwide prospective cohort study comprising a representative random sample of middle-aged and older adults. The study period was 1996–2007.
We followed 4145 middle-aged and older adults, totalling 42 353 person-years.
Overweight and mildly obese participants showed a 16 % and 30 % decrease in the risk of death, respectively, compared with those of normal weight after adjusting for potential covariates (e.g. demographic characteristics, health behaviour, co-morbidities and physical function). Underweight adults showed a 1·36-fold increased adjusted hazard ratio of death compared with normal-weight adults. Adults with a BMI of 27·0–28·0 kg/m2 showed a significantly lower adjusted hazard ratio of all-cause mortality rate compared with adults who had normal BMI values when they had coexisting hypertension or diabetes (adjusted hazard ratio=0·50; 95 % CI 0·30, 0·81 for hypertension and adjusted hazard ratio=0·41; 95 % CI 0·18, 0·89 for diabetes).
The study demonstrates that underweight people have a higher risk of death, and overweight and mildly obese people have a lower risk of death, compared with people of normal weight among middle-aged and older adults. An optimal BMI may be based on the individual, who exhibits pre-existing diseases or not.
A novel allergy biosensor is designed and fabricated by using thin film bulk acoustic resonator (TFBAR) devices with shear mode ZnO piezoelectric thin films. To fabricate TFBAR devices, the off-axis RF magnetron sputtering method for the growth of piezoelectric ZnO piezoelectric thin films is adopted. The influences of the relative distance and sputtering parameters are investigated. In this report, the piezoelectric ZnO thin films with tilting angle are set by controlling the deposition parameters. The properties of the shear mode ZnO thin films are investigated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The frequency response is measured using an HP8720 network analyzer with a CASCADE probe station. The resonance frequency of the shear mode is 796.75 MHz. The sensitivity of the shear mode is calculated to be 462.5 kHz·cm2/ng.
Unawareness of deficits is common and is associated with poor outcomes in Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, little is known about correlated neurobiochemical changes.
Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to examine neurobiochemical correlates of unawareness of deficits as assessed by the Dementia Deficit Scale in 36 patients with AD. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy spectra were acquired from the anterior cingulate area and right orbitofrontal area. Concentrations of N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), total creatine, and other neurometabolites were calculated.
Nineteen (52.8%) participants had relative unawareness of deficits. This condition was negatively correlated with NAA/creatine in the anterior cingulate area (β = −0.36, p = 0.025) and positively correlated with NAA/creatine in the right orbitofrontal area (β = 0.41, p = 0.009) after controlling for dementia severity.
These findings suggest unawareness of deficits in AD was associated with the altered neurochemical metabolites in the anterior cingulate area and right orbitofrontal area. However, the two areas might have opposite neuronal functions in unawareness of deficits.
We report the energy band alignment of Ge2Sb2Te5 and a variety of common complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) compatible materials. These materials include silicon, silicon oxide, hafnium oxide, silicon nitride as well as nickel silicide. High-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was employed as the main tool to obtain the core-level spectra, the valence band spectra, and the energy loss spectra. A precise determination of the valence band offsets of Ge2Sb2Te5 and the various materials were obtained. The conduction band offsets were then determined. The energy band line-ups of Ge2Sb2Te5 and these CMOS compatible materials were established.
This communication describes the results of a potential spin-on glass (SOG) solution for narrow and high aspect ratio trench fill in both shallow trench isolation (STI) and premetal dielectric (PMD) applications. We have focused our development work on a hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ, (HSiO3/2)n) material, which offers the advantage of a carbon free gap fill solution. The main challenge for carbon-free SOG materials is to achieve material densification in the nano-scale gaps during thermal processing that of the gap filled material during the wet cleaning steps. This paper reports some approaches and findings on material densification in the nano-scale gaps and the results of subsequent wet etch tests.
At a medical center in Taiwan, all workers were examined by chest radiography, to determine the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis. The prevalence of tuberculosis among all hospital workers was 0.12%, that among nurses was 0.35%, and that among externally contracted cleaners was 0.57%. All of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates recovered from 2 nurses and from a patient with pulmonary tuberculosis were the Beijing strain, but the strains had different serotypes.
To rapidly establish a temporary isolation ward to handle an unexpected sudden outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and to evaluate the implementation of exposure control measures by healthcare workers (HCWs) for SARS patients.
Rapid creation of 60 relatively negative pressure isolation rooms for 196 suspected SARS patients transferred from 19 hospitals and daily temperature recordings of 180 volunteer HCWs from 6 medical centers.
A military hospital.
Of the 196 patients, 34 (17.3%) met the World Health Organization criteria for probable SARS with positive results of serologic testing for SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV), reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) from nasopharyngeal or throat swabs for SARS-CoV, or both. Seventy-four patients had suspected SARS based on unprotected exposure to SARS patients; three of them had positive results on RT-PCR but negative serologic results. The remaining 88 patients did not meet the criteria for a probable or suspected SARS diagnosis. Of the 34 patients with probable SARS, 13 were transferred to medical centers to receive mechanical ventilation due to rapid deterioration of chest x-ray results, and three patients died of SARS despite intensive therapy in medical centers. During the study period, one nurse developed probable SARS due to violation of infection control measures, but there was no evidence of cross-transmission to other HCWs.
Despite the use of full personal protection equipment, the facility failed to totally prevent exposures of HCWs to SARS but minimized the risk of nosocomial transmission. Better training and improvements in infection control infrastructure may limit the impact of SARS.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.