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Maternal supraphysiological estradiol (E2) environment during pregnancy leads to adverse perinatal outcomes. However, the influence of oocyte exposure to high E2 levels on perinatal outcomes remains unknown. Thus, a retrospective cohort study was conducted to explore the effect of high E2 level induced by controlled ovarian stimulation (COH) on further outcomes after frozen embryo transfer (FET). The study included all FET cycles (n = 10,581) between 2014 and 2017. All cycles were categorized into three groups according to the E2 level on the day of the human Chorionic Gonadotropin trigger. Odds ratios (ORs) and their confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to evaluate the association between E2 level during COH and pregnancy outcomes and subsequent neonatal outcomes. From our findings, higher E2 level was associated with lower percentage of chemical pregnancy, clinical pregnancy, ongoing pregnancy, and live birth as well as increased frequency of early miscarriage. Preterm births were more common among singletons in women with higher E2 level during COH (aOR1 = 1.93, 95% CI: 1.22–3.06; aOR2 = 2.05, 95% CI: 1.33–3.06). Incidence of small for gestational age (SGA) was more common in both singletons (aOR1 = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.30–3.11; aOR2 = 2.51, 95% CI: 1.69–3.74) and multiples (aOR1 = 1.58, 95% CI: 1.03–2.45; aOR2 = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.05–3.84) among women with relatively higher E2 level. No association was found between high E2 level during COH and the percentage of macrosomia or large for gestational age. In summary, oocyte exposure to high E2 level during COH should be brought to our attention, since the pregnancy rate decreasing and the risk of preterm birth and SGA increasing following FET.
Geochronological, major and trace element, and Sr–Nd–Hf isotopic data are reported for the monzonitic rocks of the Fushan pluton in the Taihang Mountains, central North China Craton, in order to investigate their sources, petrogenesis and tectonic implications. Zircon U–Pb dating results reveal that the Fushan pluton was emplaced during the Early Cretaceous (∼126–124 Ma). The monzonites and quartz monzonites are mainly characterized by calc-alkaline and magnesian features and display light rare earth element (LREE) enrichment and flat heavy REE (HREE) patterns with slightly positive Eu anomalies. They have similar whole-rock initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.70653–0.70819), εNd(t) values (−13.6 to −18.6) and zircon εHf(t) values (−21.8 to −17.3). The primary magma of the Fushan pluton was derived from the partial melting of a spinel-facies amphibole-bearing ancient enriched lithospheric mantle. The monzonitic rocks also have high Ba–Sr and low Y and Yb contents, with high Sr/Y and La/Yb ratios. These geochemical features of monzonitic rocks are not only inherited from the magma source but also significantly enhanced by crystal fractionation during magmatic evolution; e.g. hornblende fractionation increased the Ba–Sr concentrations and Sr/Y ratios. During the Early Cretaceous, the slab sinking and roll-back of the Palaeo-Pacific Plate could have created an ancient big mantle wedge beneath East Asia and induced a lithospheric extensional process in the central North China Craton within an intracontinental setting.
For the first time, an experiment has been conducted to investigate synthetic jet laminar vortex rings impinging onto porous walls with different geometries by time-resolved particle image velocimetry. The geometry of the porous wall is changed by varying the hole diameter on the wall (from 1.0 mm to 3.0 mm) when surface porosity is kept constant (
). The finite-time Lyapunov exponent and phase-averaged vorticity field derived from particle image velocimetry data are presented to reveal the evolution of the vortical structures. A mechanism associated with vorticity cancellation is proposed to explain the formation of downstream transmitted vortex rings; and both the vortex ring trajectory and the time-mean flow feature are compared between different cases. It is found that the hole diameter significantly influences the evolution of the flow structures on both the upstream and downstream sides of the porous wall. In particular, for a porous wall with a small hole diameter (
, 0.10 and 0.133), the transmitted finger-type jets will reorganize into a well-formed transmitted vortex ring in the downstream flow. However, for the case of a large hole diameter of
, the transmitted vortex ring is not well formed because of insufficient vorticity cancellation. Additionally, the residual vorticity gradually evolves into discrete jet-like structures downstream, which further weaken the intensity of the transmitted vortex ring. Consequently, the transmitted flow structures for the
case would lose coherence more easily (or probably even transition to turbulence), resulting in a faster decay of the axial velocity and stronger entrainment of the transmitted jet. For all porous wall cases, the velocity profile of the transmitted jet exhibits self-similar behaviour in the far field (
), which agrees well with the velocity distribution of free synthetic jets. With the help of the control-volume approach, the time-mean drag of the porous wall is evaluated experimentally for the first time. It is shown that the porous wall drag increases with the decrease in the hole diameter. Moreover, for a porous wall with a small hole diameter (
, 0.10 and 0.133), it appears that the porous wall drag mainly derives from the viscous effect. However, as
increases to 0.20, the form drag associated with the porous wall geometry becomes significant.
It is important for maritime authorities to effectively classify and identify unknown types of ships in historical trajectory data. This paper uses a logistic regression model to construct a ship classifier by utilising the features extracted from ship trajectories. First of all, three basic movement patterns are proposed according to ship sailing characteristics, with related sub-trajectory partitioning algorithms. Subsequently, three categories of trajectory features with their extraction methods are presented. Finally, a case study on building a model for classifying fishing boats and cargo ships based on real Automatic Identification System (AIS) data is given. Experimental results indicate that the proposed classification method can meet the needs of recognising uncertain types of targets in historical trajectory data, laying a foundation for further research on camouflaged ship identification, behaviour pattern mining, outlier behaviour detection and other applications.
In this study, the petrology, zircon U–Pb ages, Lu–Hf isotopic compositions, whole-rock geochemistry and Sr–Nd isotopes for newly recognized low-Mg and high-Mg adakitic rocks from the North Altun orogenic belt were determined. The results will provide important insights for understanding the continuities of the North Qilian and North Altun orogenic belts during early Palaeozoic time. The low-Mg adakitic granitoids (445 to 439 Ma) are characterized by high SiO2 (69–70 wt %), low Mg no. (43–48) and low Cr and Ni contents. In contrast, the high-Mg adakitic granitoids (425 to 422 Ma) have relatively lower SiO2 (65–67 wt %), higher Mg no. (60–62) and higher Cr and Ni contents. The low-Mg adakitic rocks have high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7073–0.7084), negative εNd(t) (−1.9 to −4.0) and εHf(t) values (−6.8 to −2.0), and old zircon Hf model ages (1.4–1.7 Ga). In contrast, the high-Mg adakitic rocks show lower initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7044–0.7057), higher εNd(t) (−0.7 to 3.1) and positive εHf(t) values (2.0 to 6.9), with younger zircon Hf model ages (0.9–1.2 Ga). These results suggest that the low-Mg adakitic rocks were probably generated by the partial melting of thickened crust, whereas the high-Mg adakitic rocks were derived from the anatexis of delaminated lower crust, which subsequently interacted with mantle magma upon ascent. The data obtained in this study provide significant information about the geological and tectonic processes after the closure of the Altun Ocean. The continent–continent collision and thickening probably occurred during 450–440 Ma with the formation of low-Mg adakitic rocks, and the transition of the tectonic regime from compression to extension probably occurred at 425–422 Ma with the formation of high-Mg adakitic rocks. The geochemical, geochronological and petrogenetic similarities between the North Altun and North Qilian adakitic rocks suggest that these two orogenic belts were subjected to similar tectonomagmatic processes during early Palaeozoic times.
The unsteady flow separation of airfoil with a local flexible structure (LFS) is studied numerically in Lagrangian frames in detail, in order to investigate the nature of its high aerodynamic performance. For such aeroelastic system, the characteristic-based split (CBS) scheme combined with arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) framework is developed firstly for the numerical analysis of unsteady flow, and Galerkin method is used to approach the flexible structure. The local flexible skin of airfoil, which can lead to self-induced oscillations, is considered as unsteady perturbation to the flow. Then, the ensuing high aerodynamic performances and complex unsteady flow separation at low Reynolds number are studied by Lagrangian coherent structures (LCSs). The results show that the LFS has a significant influence on the unsteady flow separation, which is the key point for the lift enhancement. Specifically, the oscillations of the LFS can induce the generations of moving separation and vortex, which can enhance the kinetic energy transport from main flow to the boundary layer. The results could give a deep understand of the dynamics in unsteady flow separation and flow control for the flow over airfoil.
The high repetition rate 10 J/10 ns Yb:YAG laser system and its key techniques are reported. The amplifiers in this system have a multi-pass V-shape structure and the heat in the amplifiers is removed by means of laminar water flow. In the main amplifier, the laser is four-pass, and an approximately 8.5 J/1 Hz/10 ns output is achieved in the primary test. The far-field of the output beam is approximately 10 times the diffraction limit. Because of the higher levels of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) in the main amplifier, the output energy is lower than expected. At the end we discuss some measures that can improve the properties of the laser system.
The driving mechanism of solar flares and coronal mass ejections is a topic of ongoing debate, apart from the consensus that magnetic reconnection plays a key role during the impulsive process. While present solar research mostly depends on observations and theoretical models, laboratory experiments based on high-energy density facilities provide the third method for quantitatively comparing astrophysical observations and models with data achieved in experimental settings. In this article, we show laboratory modeling of solar flares and coronal mass ejections by constructing the magnetic reconnection system with two mutually approaching laser-produced plasmas circumfused of self-generated megagauss magnetic fields. Due to the Euler similarity between the laboratory and solar plasma systems, the present experiments demonstrate the morphological reproduction of flares and coronal mass ejections in solar observations in a scaled sense, and confirm the theory and model predictions about the current-sheet-born anomalous plasmoid as the initial stage of coronal mass ejections, and the behavior of moving-away plasmoid stretching the primary reconnected field lines into a secondary current sheet conjoined with two bright ridges identified as solar flares.
The poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)) based ferroelectric and relaxor materials have been proved to be good electrocaloric (EC) materials. To further enhance the EC effect in ferroelectric relaxor terpolymer poly(vinylidene fluoride–trifluoroethylene-chlorofluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE-CFE)), composites such as polymer-polymer blends and nanocomposites filled with inorganic nanoparticles are fabricated and investigated. It is found that the addition of small amount of filler (such as P(VDF-TrFE) or nano-ZrO2) can increase terpolymer’s crystallinity and enhance its relaxor behavior through interface couplings. The increased crystallinity and enhanced relaxor behavior together result in enhanced electrocaloric effect. The results demonstrate the promise of composite approaches in tailoring and enhancing ECE in the relaxor terpolymers.
What are the intrinsic factors responsible for shaping mammalian biodiversity? This question is highly relevant to discussion of the two groups of therian mammals alive today, marsupials (kangaroos, possums, etc.) and placentals (humans, bats, whales, etc.). Despite arising at the same time, marsupials have never achieved the taxonomic or morphologic diversity of their sister group, the placentals (Lillegraven 1975; Kirsch 1977; Sears 2004; Cooper and Steppan 2010). To explain this phenomenon, scientists hypothesized that the evolution of marsupials had been constrained relative to that of placentals as a result of marsupials’ unique mode of reproduction (Lillegraven 1975; Klima 1987; Sanchez-Villagra and Maier 2003).
Subsequent research confirmed that marsupials are less morphologically diverse and specialized than placentals (Sears 2004; Cooper and Steppan 2010; Kelly and Sears 2011a). Sears (2004) found that the shoulder girdles of living and extinct adult marsupials are less diverse than those of adult placentals, and adult marsupial scapulae are less morphologically diverse than adult marsupial pelves, as predicted by the marsupial constraint. Cooper and Steppan (2010) and Kelly and Sears (2011a) found that this pattern extended to forelimb versus hind limb comparisons in living mammals. Sears (2004) also linked this reduction in morphological diversity to a reduction in morphologic variation during development as a result of the functional requirements on the marsupial newborn.
An atmospheric pressure plasma jet is generated with a cold arc discharge in ambient air. The current-voltage characteristics and optical emission spectra of plasma discharges are investigated. The molecular nitrogen (N2), hydroxyl radical (OH), and oxygen atom (O) are observed and analyzed. Based on the best fit of the simulated spectra of N2 (C3∏u+ − B3∏g+) band and OH (A2∑+ − X2∏) band transition and the experimentally recorded spectra, the rotational temperature and the vibrational temperature of atmospheric pressure cold arc plasma jet (APCAPJ) are estimated.
A novel ZnO seedless chemical approach for density-controlled growth of ZnO nanowire (NW) arrays has been developed. The density of ZnO NWs is controlled by changing the precursor concentration. Effects of both growth temperature and growth time are also investigated. By this novel synthesis technique, ZnO NW arrays can grow on any substrate (polymer, glass, semiconductor, metal, and more) as long as the surface is smooth. This technique represents a new, low-cost, time-efficient, and scalable method for fabricating ZnO NW arrays for applications in field emission, vertical field effect transistor arrays, nanogenerators, and nanopiezotronics.
The black-and-white snub-nosed monkey Rhinopithecus bieti (Colobinae), categorized as Endangered on the IUCN Red List, is endemic to the Trans-Himalayas (the Hengduan Mountains) of north-west Yunnan and south-east Tibet. To evaluate the species’ current status in Tibet we surveyed six sites in Honglaxueshan National Nature Reserve, believed to be the area's only remaining location of R. bieti. Sites were identified from previous surveys and interviews with villagers and local officials. Three sub-populations, with a total of >300 individuals, were located in conifer and evergreen broad-leaf forests, which together comprise 971 km2. One of the sub-populations, in Zhina, is a new discovery, and is the northernmost known sub-population of R. bieti. Identified threats to the species include habitat destruction through wood extraction, uncontrolled grass fires, cutting of oak Quercus aquifolioides branches, inappropriate attitudes to R. bieti when people carry out economic activities in the forest, and hunting. Opportunities for conservation include the existence of sacred mountains, the limited possibilities for agriculture, and the economic dependency of villagers on the forest. We recommend the development of a sustainable ecosystem to reduce pressure on R. bieti and its forest habitat, including use of solar energy for heating and cheap electricity for cooking to minimize dependence on firewood, introduction of techniques for high crop yields to improve food supplies, and release of some farmland for planting grass, which can be used to raise livestock in enclosures and thus reduce the cutting of oak.
This paper presents a new method to simulate the
properties of Frequency Selective Surface (FSS) composed of planar H-shaped
fractals structure exhibiting multiple band gaps of electromagnetic waves.
The FSS sample can be easily fabricated as that of the Printed Circuit Board
(PCB). The electromagnetic characteristics of this H-shaped fractal
structure were studied mainly by numerical simulation based on Finite
Integration Technique (FIT). The simulation results present a direct image of
surface currents when certain frequency electromagnetic waves incident on
the surface of the sample, which is in a considerably good agreement with
the experimental results. Based on the comparison of simulated and
experimental result it is suggested that the planar H-shaped fractals
structure has quasi-periodic multiple band gaps and the size can be
significantly smaller than the relevant electromagnetic band gap wavelength.
A joule level of XeF(C-A) laser optically pumped by a sectioned
surface discharge was developed. The irradiative intensity of pumping
source was diagnosed by calculating XeF2 photo-dissociation
wave evolvement which was photographed by a framing camera. The photon
flux in the wavelength region of 140 to 170nm is about 5 ×
1023 photon s−1cm−2, that
corresponds to the irradiative brightness temperature of more than 25000
K. The laser experiments were carried out in different conditions. The
maximum laser output energy of 2.5 J was obtained with the total
conversion efficiency of 0.1%.
In this study, inter-strain reconstructed embryos were produced by combining the female pronucleus of Kunming mouse (white) with male pronucleus of C57BL/6 strain (black). Metaphase II (MII) oocytes of Kunming mouse were enucleated and the zona pellucida was removed. Then, the enucleated oocytes were inseminated by capacitated sperm of C57BL/6 mouse in vitro. At the same time, MII oocytes of Kunming mouse were artificially activated using strontium chloride solution, which did not contain cytochalasin B. Finally, we removed the male pronucleus derived from C57BL/6 sperm and injected it into a parthenogenetically activated one-pronucleus oocyte by micromanipulation. The reconstructed 2-cell embryos were transplanted into the oviducts of 22 foster mother mice, each receiving about 20 embryos. In the end, seven healthy and live pups were born from one recipient.
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were synthesized by thermal chemical vapor deposition (thermal CVD) on n-type Si (100) at 700 ° under C2H2 gas flow ratio of 30 sccm. Fe catalysts were pre-deposited by RF sputtering system with RF power 150 W. Two kinds of as-grown CNTs were used to detect N2: the vertically oriented carbon nanotubes (CNTs) mat and horizontally oriented CNTs bundle. Two-terminal electrical measurements were performed at room temperature of 25 °. The electrical resistance of CNTs mat or bundle was found to increase when exposed to N2 environment, and to return back after the N2 pumping, respectively. However, the CNTs bundle had better sensitivity and possessed faster response and recovery time. This could be ascribed to that the CNTs bundle, with more effective grooves on the surface, provided more lower binding-force sites to absorb N2 molecules than the CNTs mat dose, which prominently had interstitial sites.
The levels of drought tolerance and nucleotide polymorphism at the CBF4 locus were examined in a world-wide sample of 17 core accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana. The results showed that different accessions exhibited considerable differences in adaptation to drought stress. Compared with Columbia accession, the frequency of nucleotide polymorphism at the CBF4 locus of 25av, 203av and 244av accessions, including single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and insertion/deletion (Indel), was high, on average 1 SNP per 35.8 bp and 1 Indel per 143 bp. No significance in all regions of Tajima's D test indicated that the neutral mutation hypothesis could explain the nucleotide polymorphism in this CBF4 gene region. The higher polymorphism was the result of purification selection. Nucleotide polymorphism in the non-coding region was three times higher than in the coding region. This might indicate a recent relaxation of selection pressures on the non-coding region of CBF4 gene. In the coding region of CBF4, SNP frequency was 1 SNP per 96.4 bp and one non-synonymous mutation was detected from 25av, 203av and 244av accessions: the amino acid variation gly↔val at position 205, caused by the nucleotide variation G↔T at position 1034 (corresponding to the nucleotide at position 19 696 of GenBank accession no. AB015478 as 1). Furthermore, four differential SNPs were discovered in haplotype 6 constituted by 203av, one of them located in the 3′ non-coding region (A↔C at position 1106) and the others in the 5′ non-coding region (A↔G, A↔C and G↔A at positions 27, 129 and 171, respectively). The drought tolerance assay indicated that accession 203av was the best at tolerating water deficiency. We propose that haplotype 6 is consistent with its drought tolerance.
Successful production of cloned animals derived from somatic cells has been achieved in sheep, cattle, goats, mice, pigs, rabbits, etc. But the efficiency of nuclear transfer is very low in all species. The present study was conducted to examine somatic nucleus remodelling and developmental ability in vitro of rabbit embryos by transferring somatic cells into enucleated germinal vesicle (GV), metaphase I (MI) or metaphase II (MII) oocytes. Microtubules were organized around condensed chromosomes after the nucleus had been transferred into any of the three types of cytoplasm. A bipolar spindle was formed in enucleated MII cytoplasm. Most of the nuclei failed to form a normal spindle within GV and MI cytoplasm. Some chromosomes scattered throughout the cytoplasm and some formed a monopolar spindle. Pseudopronucleus formation was observed in all three types of cytoplasm. Reconstructed embryos with MI and MII cytoplasm could develop to blastcysts. Nuclei in GV cytoplasm could develop only to the 4-cell stage. These results suggest that (1) GV material is important for nucleus remodelling after nuclear transfer, and (2) oocyte cytoplasm has the capacity to dedifferentiate somatic cells during oocyte maturation.
With the aid of a six-dimensional special eigenvector q, T.C.T.Ting finds five new invariants of anisotropic elasticity constants. The purpose of this paper is to consider some character of the eigenvector q. It is pointed that the six-dimensional special eigenvector q is unique, if it is independent of the coordinate transformation, and the general form of a three-rank orthogonal matrix is given if it has a three-dimensional special eigenvector like q. In addition, the concept of the special eigenvector q is extended and 20 invariants of anisotropic elasticity constants are obtained under rotation about x3-axis.