To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Although topographic mapping missions and geological surveys carried out by Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) are becoming increasingly prevalent, the lack of precise navigation in these scenarios still limits their application. This paper deals with the problems of long-term underwater navigation for AUVs and provides new mapping techniques by developing a Bathymetric Simultaneous Localisation And Mapping (BSLAM) method based on graph SLAM technology. To considerably reduce the calculation cost, the trajectory of the AUV is divided into various submaps based on Differences of Normals (DoN). Loop closures between submaps are obtained by terrain matching; meanwhile, maximum likelihood terrain estimation is also introduced to build weak data association within the submap. Assisted by one weight voting method for loop closures, the global and local trajectory corrections work together to provide an accurate navigation solution for AUVs with weak data association and inaccurate loop closures. The viability, accuracy and real-time performance of the proposed algorithm are verified with data collected onboard, including an 8 km planned track recorded at a speed of 4 knots in Qingdao, China.
Discovering knowledge from data is a quantum jump from quantity to quality, which is the characteristic and the spirit of the development of science. Symbolic regression (SR) is playing a greater role in the discovery of knowledge from data, specifically in this era of exponential data growth, because SRs are able to discover mathematical formulas from data. These formulas may provide scientifically meaningful models, especially when combined with domain knowledge. This article provides an overview of SR applications in the field of materials science and engineering. Integrating domain knowledge with SR is the key and a crucial approach, which allows gaining knowledge from data quickly, accurately, and scientifically. In the data-driven paradigm, SR allows for uncovering the underlying mechanisms of materials behavior, properties, and functions, in a wide range of areas from basic academic research to industrial applications, including experiments and computations, by providing explicit interpretable models from data, in comparison with other machine-learning “black-box” models. SR will be a powerful tool for rational and automatic materials development.
Significant developments in micro-electrical-mechanical systems (MEMS)-based devices have led to the commercialization of windowed gas cells that now enable atomic-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) observation of phenomena occurring during gas-solid interactions at atmospheric pressure. An in situ atmospheric STEM study provides information that is beneficial to correlating the structure-properties relationship of catalytic nanomaterials, particularly under realistic gaseous reaction conditions. In this article, we illustrate the advantages of this tool as applied to our study of two important systems: (1) the CO-induced Pt nanoparticle surface reconstruction at saturation coverage and (2) the ordering and Pt surface enrichment in supported Pt3Co nanoparticles.
Although it is crucial to improve the treatment status of people with severe mental illness (SMI), it is still unknown whether and how socioeconomic development influences their treatment status.
To explore the change in treatment status in people with SMI from 1994 to 2015 in rural China and to examine the factors influencing treatment status in those with SMI.
Two mental health surveys using identical methods and ICD-10 were conducted in 1994 and 2015 (population ≥15 years old, n = 152 776) in the same six townships of Xinjin County, Chengdu, China.
Compared with 1994, individuals with SMI in 2015 had significantly higher rates of poor family economic status, fewer family caregivers, longer duration of illness, later age at first onset and poor mental status. Participants in 2015 had significantly higher rates of never being treated, taking antipsychotic drugs and ever being admitted to hospital, and lower rates of using traditional Chinese medicine or being treated by traditional/spiritual healers. The factors strongly associated with never being treated included worse mental status (symptoms/social functioning), older age, having no family caregivers and poor family economic status.
Socioeconomic development influences the treatment status of people with SMI in contemporary rural China. Relative poverty, having no family caregivers and older age are important factors associated with a worse treatment status. Culture-specific, community-based interventions and targeted poverty-alleviation programmes should be developed to improve the early identification, treatment and recovery of individuals with SMI in rural China.
TRIM28/KAP1/TIF1β was identified as a universal transcriptional co-repressor and is critical for regulating post-fertilization methylation reprogramming in preimplantation embryos. In this study, three siRNAs (si647, si742, and si1153) were designed to target the TRIM28 mRNA sequence. After transfection of the mixture of the three siRNA (siMix) into bovine fibroblast cells, the most effective one for TRIM28 knockdown was selected. By injecting RNAi directed against TRIM28 mRNA, we found that TRIM28 knockdown in oocytes had the most effect on the H19 gene, in which differentially methylated region (DMR) methylation was almost completely absent at the 2-cell stage (1.4%), while control embryos showed 74% methylation. In addition, global H3K9me3 levels at the 2-cell stage were significantly higher in the in vitro fertilization (IVF) group than in the TRIM28 knockdown group (P<0.05). We further show that TRIM28 is highly expressed during oocyte maturation and reaches peak levels at the 2-cell stage. In contrast, at this stage, TRIM28 expression in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos decreased significantly (P<0.05), suggesting that Trim28 transcripts are lost during SCNT. TRIM28 is required for the maintenance of methylation imprints in bovine preimplantation embryos, and the loss of TRIM28 during SCNT may contribute to the unfaithful maintenance of imprints in cloned embryos.
Familial monozygotic (MZ) twinning reports are rare around the world, and we report a four-generation pedigree with seven recorded pairs of female MZ twins. Whole-genome sequencing of seven family members was performed to explore the featured genetic factors in MZ twins. For variations specific to MZ twins, five novel variants were observed in the X chromosome. These candidates were used to explain the seemingly X-linked dominant inheritance pattern, and only one variant was exonic, located at the 5′UTR region of ZCCHC12 (chrX: 117958597, G > A). Besides, consistent mitochondrial DNA composition in the maternal linage precluded roles of mitochondria for this trait. In this pedigree, autosomes also contain diverse variations specific to MZ twins. Pathway analysis revealed a significant enrichment of genes carrying novel SNVs in the epithelial adherens junction-signaling pathway (p = .011), contributed by FGFR1, TUBB6, and MYH7B. Meanwhile, TBC1D22A, TRIOBP, and TUBB6, also carrying similar SNVs, were involved in the GTPase family-mediated signal pathway. Furthermore, gene-set enrichment analysis for 533 genes covered by copy number variations specific to MZ twins illustrated that the tight junction-signaling pathway was significantly enriched (p < .001). Therefore, the novel changes in the X chromosome and the provided candidate variants across autosomes may be responsible for MZ twinning, giving clues to increase our understanding about the underlying mechanism.
This study was designed to explore the association between undernutrition in the growth period and cardiovascular risk factors in a middle-aged Chinese population. A total of 1756 subjects, aged 45–60 years, were invited to participate in the Hefei Nutrition and Health Study and divided into three groups according to their self-reported animal food intake in the growth period. Group 1, Group 2 and Group 3 were defined as undernutrition, nutritional improvement and the good nutrition group, respectively. In the three groups, the subjects in Groups 1 and 2 had more oil and salt intake (P<0.001), and less eggs and milk intake (P<0.001), when compared with the subjects in Group 3. After adjusting for age, education, smoking status and other confounding factors, it was found that male participants who experienced nutritional improvement before age 18 had higher risk of hypertension [odds ratio (OR)=1.68; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.05, 2.69] than those with good nutrition, and female participants with undernutrition (OR=1.52; 95% CI: 1.01, 2.29) and nutritional improvement (OR=1.68; 95% CI: 1.04, 2.69) before age 18 had a higher risk of hypertension than those with good nutrition. For diabetes, obesity, hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia, our results did not found difference among the three groups both in male and female. Our findings indicated that nutritional deficiency in childhood was associated with bad dietary behaviors and a significantly increased risk of hypertension in middle age. Therefore, early adequate nutrition is very important for the prevention of non-communicable diseases later.
To produce pulses with good flat-top quality, pulse-forming lines (PFLs) have been widely used in the field of Tesla-type pulse generators. To shorten the physical length of the PFL, a double-width PFL (DWPFL) is proposed that doubles the output pulse width while maintaining flat-top quality. A repetitively 10 GW Tesla-type long-pulse generator producing pulses with flat-top width of about 110 ns was developed with a coaxial DWPFL to produce high-current electron beams. Electron beams of about 10 GW with flat-top widths of about 110 ns were obtained on a planar vacuum diode load. With this pulse generator and a C-band high-power microwave system, microwaves of ~2.2 GW power and full-width at half-maximum of 101 ns were generated. The experiment demonstrates the feasibility and ideal output waveform quality of the DWPFL.
The stability of a shale containing smectite with different exchangeable cations (Na+, Ca2+) was improved using optimum solutions containing polyether amine (PA), poly-alcohol (PO) or KCl. Two types of shale samples with Na+ and Ca2+ as the main exchangeable cations, respectively, were used and the optimized solutions were determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD), an adsorption test, an oedometer swelling test, and an immersion test. The use of KCl prevented intercalation of PA or PO and maintained the stability of the Na-smectite-bearing shale. PA or PO adsorption reduced water adsorption sites on the clay layer, and K+ reduced hydration of exchangeable Na+, resulting in good shale stability in mixed solutions of KCl+PA, and KCl+PO. More stable shale was achieved in KCl+ PA mixed solution, whereas in the KCl+ PO solution the transport of water or solute molecules in the shale was reduced. In the shale containing mainly Ca-smectite, PA, PO and KCl maintained shale stability when applied separately or in common, as PA or PO cannot exchange Ca2+ in the smectite interlayer. As a result, PA or PO should be used together with KCl during drilling in shale formations containing Na-smectite, whereas in shales with Ca-smectite, PA, PO or KCl may be used separately.
Significant developments in micro-electrical-mechanical systems-based devices for use in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) sample holders have recently led to the commercialization of windowed gas cells that now enable the atomic-resolution visualization of phenomena occurring during gas–solid interactions at atmospheric pressure. In situ TEM study under atmospheric pressures provides unique information that is beneficial to correlating the structure–properties relationship of nanomaterials, particularly under real gaseous environments. We here provide a brief introduction of the advanced instrumentation of windowed gas cells and review recent progress of in situ atomic-resolution TEM study under atmospheric pressures, including some application examples of oxidation and reduction processes, dynamic growth of nanomaterials, catalytic reactions, and “operando” TEM.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The goal of this research is to use circulating tumor cells (CTC) enumeration and characterization to monitor anticancer treatment response. Emerging evidence strongly suggests the implications that epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition may have in cancer metastasis. Consequently, we hope to elucidate the significance of mesenchymal and stem-like CTCs in the peripheral blood of metastatic pancreatic cancer patients by analyzing the prevalence and frequency trends of CD133+ CTCs, as they relate to clinical events. We also hope to determine if there is a correlation between EpCAM+ CTCs and CD133+ CTCs numbers with tumor size, disease stage, and patient clinical outcome. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Blood samples of patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer (stage IV) were obtained from the University of Florida Health Cancer Center after informed consent through an IRB-approved protocol. CTC capture, characterization, and enumeration was performed on the blood of these cancer patients during their anticancer treatment. Patients had blood drawn for this purpose at time points aligned with clinical phlebotomy (every 2 weeks). CTC capture was performed by introducing treated patient blood samples into antibody-functionalized microdevices. The PDMS devices were functionalized by immobilizing either anti-EpCAM or anti-CD133, through an avidin-biotin complex. After capture, cells were fixated and permeabilized with 4% paraformaldehyde and 0.2% Triton X-100, respectively. Three-color immunocytochemistry (anti-cytokeratin-FITC, anti-CD45-PE, and DAPI) was performed to identify CTCs from nonspecifically captured blood cells. To be counted as a CTC, based on the FDA-approved technical definition, a cell with the appropriate cell size and morphology must be nucleated (DAPI+), express cytokeratin (CK+), and lack the leukocytic CD45 marker (CD45−). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We tested the clinical utility of the device for monitoring the response of patients with advanced pancreatic cancer to a chemotherapy treatment consisting of anticancer drugs including 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, oxaliplatin, and dasatinib. We have detected EpCAM+ CTCs in 47/47 (100%) and CD133+ CTCs in 41/47 (87.2%) of blood samples, coming from a cohort of 16 patients. We studied the correlation between the CTC numbers and the clinical result of patients in the study. We found that the size and changes in the size of the primary tumor (confirmed by CT scans) correlated with the frequency and increase/decrease trends in the number of CTCs detected. We expect to find some relationship between the number of detected CD133+ CTCs, or rather stem-like CTCs, and the clinical outcome of patients (eg, disease progression leading to withdrawal from study). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Enumeration of patient CTCs and stem-like CTCs at different stages of a patient’s treatment may correlate with disease stage and prognosis, and prove useful in monitoring early recurrence, patient-specific treatment response, and newly acquired resistances; all of which would aid in providing guidance for the next step in clinical intervention. This type of liquid biopsy technology has great potential to make an impact in the future of personalized medicine and point-of-care diagnostics, as well as become a sturdy tool for translational research.
This study aimed to investigate the impacts of dietary threonine on intestinal immunity and inflammation in juvenile grass carp. Six iso-nitrogenous semi-purified diets containing graded levels of threonine (3·99–21·66 g threonine/kg) were formulated and fed to fishes for 8 weeks, and then challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila for 14 d. Results showed that, compared with optimum threonine supplementation, threonine deficiency (1) decreased the ability of fish against enteritis, intestinal lysozyme activities (except in the distal intestine), acid phosphatase activities, complement 3 (C3) and C4 contents and IgM contents (except in the proximal intestine (PI)), and it down-regulated the transcript abundances of liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide (LEAP)-2A, LEAP-2B, hepcidin, IgZ, IgM and β-defensin1 (except in the PI) (P<0·05); (2) could up-regulate intestinal pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-17D mRNA levels partly related to NF-κB signalling; (3) could down-regulate intestinal anti-inflammatory cytokine transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, TGF-β2, IL-4/13A (not IL-4/13B) and IL-10 mRNA levels partly by target of rapamycin signalling. Finally, on the basis of the specific growth rate, against the enteritis morbidity and IgM contents, the optimum threonine requirements were estimated to be 14·53 g threonine/kg diet (4·48 g threonine/100 g protein), 15.05 g threonine/kg diet (4·64 g threonine/100 g protein) and 15·17 g threonine/kg diet (4·68 g threonine/100 g protein), respectively.
In this study, the petrology, zircon U–Pb ages, Lu–Hf isotopic compositions, whole-rock geochemistry and Sr–Nd isotopes for newly recognized low-Mg and high-Mg adakitic rocks from the North Altun orogenic belt were determined. The results will provide important insights for understanding the continuities of the North Qilian and North Altun orogenic belts during early Palaeozoic time. The low-Mg adakitic granitoids (445 to 439 Ma) are characterized by high SiO2 (69–70 wt %), low Mg no. (43–48) and low Cr and Ni contents. In contrast, the high-Mg adakitic granitoids (425 to 422 Ma) have relatively lower SiO2 (65–67 wt %), higher Mg no. (60–62) and higher Cr and Ni contents. The low-Mg adakitic rocks have high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7073–0.7084), negative εNd(t) (−1.9 to −4.0) and εHf(t) values (−6.8 to −2.0), and old zircon Hf model ages (1.4–1.7 Ga). In contrast, the high-Mg adakitic rocks show lower initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7044–0.7057), higher εNd(t) (−0.7 to 3.1) and positive εHf(t) values (2.0 to 6.9), with younger zircon Hf model ages (0.9–1.2 Ga). These results suggest that the low-Mg adakitic rocks were probably generated by the partial melting of thickened crust, whereas the high-Mg adakitic rocks were derived from the anatexis of delaminated lower crust, which subsequently interacted with mantle magma upon ascent. The data obtained in this study provide significant information about the geological and tectonic processes after the closure of the Altun Ocean. The continent–continent collision and thickening probably occurred during 450–440 Ma with the formation of low-Mg adakitic rocks, and the transition of the tectonic regime from compression to extension probably occurred at 425–422 Ma with the formation of high-Mg adakitic rocks. The geochemical, geochronological and petrogenetic similarities between the North Altun and North Qilian adakitic rocks suggest that these two orogenic belts were subjected to similar tectonomagmatic processes during early Palaeozoic times.
Disclosing the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) to a patient is controversial. There is significant stigma associated with a diagnosis of AD or dementia in China, but the attitude of the society toward disclosure of such a diagnosis had not been formally evaluated prior to our study. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the attitude toward disclosing an AD diagnosis to patients in China with cognitive impairment from their caregivers, and the factors that may affect their attitude.
We designed a 17-item questionnaire and administered this questionnaire to caregivers, who accompanied patients with cognitive impairment or dementia in three major hospitals in Shanghai, China. The caregiver's attitude toward disclosing the diagnosis of AD as evaluated by the questionnaire was compared to that of disclosing the diagnosis of terminal cancer.
A majority (95.7%) of the 175 interviewed participants (mean 14.2 years of education received) wished to know their own diagnosis if they were diagnosed with AD, and 97.6% preferred the doctor to tell their family members if they were diagnosed with AD. If a family member of the participants suffered from AD, 82.9% preferred to have the diagnosis disclosed to the patient. “Cognitive impairment” was the most accepted term by caregivers to disclose AD diagnosis in Chinese.
This study suggests most of the well-educated individuals in a Chinese urban area favored disclosing the diagnosis when they or their family members were diagnosed with AD.