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Growth in the immediate postnatal period for extremely low birth weight (ELBW, birth weight < 1000 g) infants is an important topic in neonatal medicine. The goal is to ensure adequate postnatal growth and to minimize complications resulting from suboptimal growth. Past efforts have focused on postnatal nutrition as well as on minimizing comorbidities. It has not been systematically assessed whether antenatal factors play a role in postnatal growth. In this report, we conducted a retrospective study on 91 maternal–neonatal pairs. We prospectively collected maternal and neonatal demographic data, neonatal nutrition in the first 7 days of life and after enteral nutrition is fully established, comorbidity data, as well as weight data from birth to 50 weeks corrected gestational age. We developed a linear mixed-effects model to examine the role of placental insufficiency, as defined by fetal Doppler studies, in postnatal weight z-score trajectory over time in the ELBW population. We relied on Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) for model selection. Interestingly, the selected model included a quadratic term of time and a placental insufficiency-by-time interaction term. In a covariate analysis, AIC and BIC both favored a model that included calories intake in the first 7 days of life and the total duration of antibiotics as fixed-effects, but not their interaction terms with time. Overall, we demonstrated for the first time that placental insufficiency, an antenatal factor, is a major determinant of postnatal weight trajectory in the ELBW population. Prospective studies are warranted to confirm our findings.
We report the utility of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) conducted in a clinically relevant time frame (ie, sufficient for guiding management decision), in managing a Streptococcus pyogenes outbreak, and present a comparison of its performance with emm typing.
A 2,000-bed tertiary-care psychiatric hospital.
Active surveillance was conducted to identify new cases of S. pyogenes. WGS guided targeted epidemiological investigations, and infection control measures were implemented. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)–based genome phylogeny, emm typing, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were performed. We compared the ability of WGS and emm typing to correctly identify person-to-person transmission and to guide the management of the outbreak.
The study included 204 patients and 152 staff. We identified 35 patients and 2 staff members with S. pyogenes. WGS revealed polyclonal S. pyogenes infections with 3 genetically distinct phylogenetic clusters (C1–C3). Cluster C1 isolates were all emm type 4, sequence type 915 and had pairwise SNP differences of 0–5, which suggested recent person-to-person transmissions. Epidemiological investigation revealed that cluster C1 was mediated by dermal colonization and transmission of S. pyogenes in a male residential ward. Clusters C2 and C3 were genomically diverse, with pairwise SNP differences of 21–45 and 26–58, and emm 11 and mostly emm120, respectively. Clusters C2 and C3, which may have been considered person-to-person transmissions by emm typing, were shown by WGS to be unlikely by integrating pairwise SNP differences with epidemiology.
WGS had higher resolution than emm typing in identifying clusters with recent and ongoing person-to-person transmissions, which allowed implementation of targeted intervention to control the outbreak.
Young Type Ia supernova remnants (SNRs) are characterized by Balmer-dominated optical spectra, well-defined shell morphologies, > 1036 ergs s−1 X-ray luminosities, and a lack of massive stars and dense interstellar gas in their vicinity. Applying these characteristics and using archival deep HST and Chandra observations of M83, we search for young Type Ia SNRs in this spiral galaxy. This is a very difficult task!
Objective: MELAS (mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by mitochondrial dysfunction. Multiple systems of the body, including cognitive function and heart conduction, can be affected by this disorder. We report a case with global cognitive impairment.
Method: A single-case report.
Results: The patient got improved cognitive function, especially visuospatial function, under coenzyme Q10 treatment.
Conclusion: First, coenzyme Q10 may give some benefit to control MELAS. Second, cognitive functions and intellectual abilities decline with disease progression. Routine neuropsychological tests should be performed.
Fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs) with a size in the range of 10 – 100 nm have been produced by ion irradiation and annealing, and isolated by differential centrifugation. Single particle spectroscopic characterization with confocal fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy indicates that they are photostable and useful as an alternative to far-red fluorescent proteins for bioimaging applications. We demonstrate the application by performing in vivo imaging of bare and bioconjugated FND particles (100 nm in diameter) in C. elegans and zebrafishes and exploring the interactions between this novel nanomaterial and the model organisms. Our results indicate that FNDs can be delivered to the embryos of both organisms by microinjection and eventually into the hatched larvae in the next generation. No deleterious effects have been observed for the carbon-based nanoparticles in vivo. The high fluorescence brightness, excellent photostability, and nontoxic nature of the nanomaterial have allowed long-term imaging and tracking of embryogenesis in the organisms.
Dimensional cross-over behavior of Anderson localization is presented. By delineating the physical basis of localization, it is shown that the localization phenomenon is sensitive to the spatial dimension of the randomness. Analytic and numerical results demonstrate that in an anisotropically random medium there is a critical amount of anisotropy which separates the system behavior into a ID-like regime and a 3D-like regime. Dimensional crossover is proposed as a viable experimental approach to observe the mobility edge.
The study reported is about an integrated wireless physiological monitor module of the flexible patch type, used on a non-woven material to package this module by a hot press process. The module can monitor the body temperature and heart rate. Experimental results showed that the specification and accuracy should be 25-40 °C ± 0.5 °C and 50-200 bpm ± 2 bpm. The main advantage of the module is that the postural change can be monitored. At the same time, it has also a good adhesion between substrate and components, without crack of conductor trace line after bending the module repeatedly. Thickness is about 2 mm. The aim of this study is to speed up the physiological technology and to create more efficiency by miniaturization. In addition, the acceptance level of wearing it is increased by the small and ergonomic design.
Due to its low resistivity and excellent thermal stability, IrO2 has attracted attention as an alternative for electrode material in ferroelectric integrated circuit applications. In this work, IrO2 films deposited using reactive DC magnetron sputtering were studied. Film properties such as resistivity, crystallinity and morphology were examined as a function of deposition condition. Optimum process parameters to obtain high quality IrO2 thin films are suggested.
As deposited tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5) films are amorphous. The films will remain amorphous after O2 or N2O plasma annealing at low temperature. High temperature annealing will produce polycrystalline films where grain boundaries can generate leakage current. Previously, we have shown that N2O plasma annealing is superior to O2 plasma annealing in terms of leakage current reduction for AI/Ta2O5/Si capacitors. However, for TiN/Ta2O5/Si capacitors, the leakage current tends to be higher at low bias voltage for N2O plasma annealing compared to O2 plasma annealing. By adding an 02 plasma annealing step and then comparing TiN/Ta2O5/Si capacitors with two step O2/N2O plasma annealing with respect to similar structures with two step O2/O2 plasma annealing, it can be easily seen that TiN/Ta2O5/Si capacitors with two step O2/N2O plasma annealing have lower leakage current compared to similar structures with two step O2/O2 plasma annealing throughtout the voltage range tested.
For the purpose of developing the corrosion-resistant and low-cost metallic bipolar plates for direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC), Ti mesh, stainless steel and Si(100) were coated with TiN by using the filtered cathodic vacuum arc system (FCVA). These TiN films have received considerable attention because of its high anti-corrosion behavior and low contact-resistance. In order to improve the corrosion protective ability of TiN films and decrease pinholes of coating, growth modifications such as thickness of the coatings and bias applied to substrates have also been carried out. The microstructures and composition of TiN film were identified by the instrumental analyses such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The corrosion behavior of TiN coatings was studied in 0.5 M H2SO4 solutions by using potentiodynamic polarization method. The DC bias of −150 V was applied to the substrates to achieve a dense structure of approximately 400 nm coating of TiN, so that good corrosion protection of the Ti mesh and stainless steel substrates can be achieved. The TiN coating on stainless steel exhibited excellent corrosion behavior especially in lower corrosion current than 2×10−7 A/cm2.
Poly-crystal ZnO films with c-axis (002) orientation have been successfully grown on the lead-based ceramic substrates by r.f. magnetron sputtering technique. The deposited films were characterized as a function of deposition time and argon-oxygen gas flow ratio. Crystalline structures of the films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Highly oriented films with c-axis normal to the substrates can be obtained by depositing under a total pressure of 10mTorr containing 50% argon and 50% oxygen and r.f. power of 70W for 3 hours. The phase velocity, electromechanical coupling coefficient and temperature coefficient of frequency of SAW device with ZnO/IDT/PT-ceramic structure were investigated. It shows that the preferred oriented ZnO film is beneficial for improving the electromechanical coupling coefficient of SAW device.
AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) with a polarized Polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) film coated on the gate area exhibited significant changes in channel conductance upon exposure to different ambient pressures. The PVDF thin film was deposited on the gate region with an inkjet plotter. Next, the PDVF film was polarized with an electrode located 2 mm above the PVDF film at a bias voltage of 10 kV and 70 °C. Variations in ambient pressure induced changes in the charge in the polarized PVDF, leading to a change of surface charges on the gate region of the HEMT. Changes in the gate charge were amplified through the modulation of the drain current in the HEMT. By reversing the polarity of the polarized PVDF film, the drain current dependence on the pressure could be reversed. Our results indicate that HEMTs have potential for use as pressure sensors.
Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary trunk is a rare congenital heart defect. Cardiac catheterization remains the standard means of diagnosis. Our purpose in this study is to emphasize the importance of assessing the electrocardiogram when making the diagnosis, in addition to taking note of transthoracic echocardiographic findings. We also analyzed the sensitivity of each parameter under investigation.
Methods and Results
Between June, 1999, and March, 2007, we studied 9 patients, 6 males and 3 females, with a mean age of 3.02 years, in whom anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary trunk was suspected subsequent to transthoracic echocardiographic examination. We examined their electrocardiograms, and undertook cardiac catheterization. In all patients, the transthoracic echocardiogram had shown retrograde flow into the pulmonary trunk, with the left coronary artery arising from pulmonary trunk, along with a dilated right coronary artery, or intercoronary collateral vessels. In 8 patients, the electrocardiogram showed deep Q wave in leads I and aVL, with depression of the ST segments over lead V4 through 6, or inversion of the T waves in leads I, II, and aVL. In the remaining patient, the electrocardiogram showed incomplete right bundle branch block. Later, cardiac catheterization confirmed the diagnosis in 8 patients, but the other patient was shown to have the right coronary artery arising from the pulmonary trunk.
By combining transthoracic echocardiography with study of the electrocardiogram, it is possible to provide accurate evaluation of anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary trunk.
Three pairs of primers were designed for amplification of the adiponectin gene in geese (Anser demeatica) based on the published sequences of chicken, duck and other adiponectin homologues. The complete 1062 bp sequence of the adiponectin gene in geese, obtained by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and splicing, contained two exons and one intron. The coding sequence was 738 bp long and included codes for 245 amino acids (GenBank Accession No. EU370686). The coding sequence and the corresponding protein of goose adiponectin shared the highest homology with ducks, 94.85% and 95.51%, respectively; homology with chicken adiponectin was next highest, while the lowest homology was to be found with mammals. The predicted molecular weight (MW) and isoelectric point (pI) were 26,603.3 Da and pH 5.19, respectively, which were highly similar to those of species considered above. Reverse transcription-PCR revealed that goose adiponectin mRNA was highly expressed in skeletal muscle, fatty tissue, heart and stomach muscles. Medium levels of expression were detected in the small intestine, stomach glandular tissue, kidney and lung, while it was only weakly expressed in the liver, spleen, ovaries and diencephalon.
Vitamin D is essential for Ca absorption, prevention of falls and fracture, and maintenance of muscle strength and balance. Lack of awareness of the importance of vitamin D in bone health is common in Asia.
To define key statements, objectives and actions for improving osteoporosis management and vitamin D inadequacy in Asia.
Results and conclusion
This declaration was jointly produced by specialists at the Asia Metaforum on the Role of Vitamin D and the Management of Osteoporosis, held in September 2006 in Hong Kong, to define actions to prevent vitamin D insufficiency in Asia. Although developed specifically for Asia, some or all of these statements may be applicable to other regions of the world.
The ‘bumpy Z-pinch’ is a magnetic configuration with potential usefulness for fusion reactors. A conceptually simple version of the configuration is axisymmetric. It contains regions of closed and open field lines. In the region of closed field lines, the field line topology is much like that of a tokamak; these regions link the region of open field lines around the axis of symmetry. Assuming that the plasma spontaneously maintains an equilibrium as described by J. B. Taylor, it is possible to maintain indefinitely the regions of closed field lines by driving an axial current through the plasma in the region of open field lines. The ratio between the total axial driven current and the total poloidal current in each of the tokamak-like regions can, in principle, be made arbitrarily small, which means that the load impedance can be arbitrarily large. In addition, the configuration has the inherent virtue similar to that of the spheromak that the tokamaklike part of the plasma does not link any material coils.
To investigate the influence of pulse repetition rate on the average
size of the nanoparticles, nanocrystalline Si films were prepared by
pulsed laser ablation in high-purity Ar gas with a pressure of 10 Pa at
room temperature, under the pulse repetition rates between 1 and 40 Hz,
using a nanosecond laser. Raman, X-ray diffraction spectra, and scanning
electron microscopy images show that with increasing pulse repetition
rate, the average size of the nanoparticles in the film first decreases
and reach its minimum at 20 Hz, and then increases, which may be
attributed to the nonlinear dynamics of the laser-ablative deposition. In
our experiment conditions, the duration of the ambient restoration, a
characteristic parameter being used to distinguish nonlinear or linear
region, is about a few seconds from the order of magnitude, which is
consistent with the previous experimental observation. More detailed model
to explain quantitively the observed effect is under investigation.