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Human milkfat is specially tailored to supply the developing infant with adequate and balanced nutrients. This study aimed to quantify the composition of fatty acids, tocopherols and carotenoids in human milk, with special emphasis on the lactational changes. Colostrum, transitional, and mature milk samples were collected longitudinally from the same 42 healthy, well-nourished Chinese mothers. Fatty acids were quantified by gas chromatography with carotenoids (carotenes and xanthophylls) and tocopherols (α-, γ-tocopherol) determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Total fatty acids content increased from 15.09 g/L in colostrum to 32.57 g/L in mature milk with the percentages of DHA and ARA decreased. The ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFA and ARA/DHA remained constant during lactation at around 11:1 and 1.3:1, respectively. Both α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol decreased over lactation with the ratio of α-/γ-tocopherol declined significantly from 7.21:1 to 4.21:1 (P < 0.001). Carotenoids all dropped from colostrum to mature milk as the less polar carotenes dropped by 88.67% while xanthophylls only dropped by 35.92%. Lutein predominated in both transitional and mature milk carotenoids (51.64~52.49%), while colostrum carotenoids were mainly composed of lycopene (32.83%) and β-carotene (30.78%). The concentrations of tocopherols and xanthophylls but not carotenes were positively associated with milk total fatty acids content. These results suggested that colostrum and mature milk contained divergent lipid profiles and selective transfer mechanisms related with polarity might be involved. The present outcomes provide new insights for future breastfeeding studies, which also add in scientific evidences for the design of both initial and follow-on infant formulas.
Moduli spaces of stable objects in the derived category of a
surface provide a large class of holomorphic symplectic varieties. In this paper, we study the interplay between Chern classes of stable objects and zero-cycles on holomorphic symplectic varieties which arise as moduli spaces. First, we show that the second Chern class of any object in the derived category lies in a suitable piece of O’Grady’s filtration on the
-group of the
surface. This solves a conjecture of O’Grady and improves on previous results of Huybrechts, O’Grady, and Voisin. Second, we propose a candidate for the Beauville–Voisin filtration on the
-group of the moduli space of stable objects. We discuss its connection with Voisin’s recent proposal via constant cycle subvarieties, and prove a conjecture of hers on the existence of special algebraically coisotropic subvarieties for the moduli space.
The jungles of Linyun and Longlin Autonomous Prefecture, located in the heart of the southwestern Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of China, are home to the oldest tea trees (Camellia sinensis) in the world. In the absence of regular annual rings, radiocarbon (14C) dating is one of the most powerful tools that can assist in the determination of the ages and growth rates of these plants. In this work, cores were extracted from large ancient tea trees in a central Longlin rain forest; extraction of carbon was performed with an automated sample preparation system. The 14C levels in the tree cores were measured using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) at the University of Tsukuba. These measurements indicated that contrary to conventional views, the ages of trees in these forests range up to ~700 years, and the growth rate of this species is notably slow, exhibiting a long-term radial growth rate of 0.039±0.006 cm/yr. It was demonstrated that 14C analyses provide accurate determination of ages and growth rates for subtropical wild tea trees.
The microstructure of carbon quantum dots (CQDs) has a great influence on their fluorescence properties. Here, different microstructures of CQDs were synthesized by the selective oxidation of graphitized activated carbon using HNO3/HClO4 as the oxidant. We characterized the microstructure and surface chemistry of the CQDs, and the results show that the degree of graphitization of activated carbon has a significant effect on the structure and fluorescence properties of the obtained CQDs. The fluorescence of the CQD solution can be tuned from yellow to green by regulating the degree of graphitization of the activated carbon by heat treatment at high temperature (up to 2500 °C). Moreover, the increased degree of graphitization of the raw carbon precursor is beneficial for significantly reducing the fluorescence self-absorption quenching of the concentrated CQD solution. Importantly, the as-prepared CQDs have no cytotoxicity and can be used as bioimaging agents.
Radiocarbon (14C) has become a unique and powerful tracer in source apportionment of atmospheric carbonaceous particles. In this study, the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation summit (APEC) held in Beijing in 2014 was used as a demonstration to research the source apportionment of atmosphere PM2.5. We used a 200 kV single stage accelerator mass spectrometer recently completed at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). The PM2.5 samples related to above case were collected, and the characteristics of radiocarbon in organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in samples were analyzed using the AMS. The results show that the Before-APEC pollution emission mode is different from the During-APEC and After-APEC pollution emission modes. For Before-APEC, During-APEC and After-APEC, the average values of fossil carbon fraction of OC are 0.463, 0.431 and 0.615, respectively, and those of EC are 0.644, 0.561 and 0.687. The fossil source contributions of traffic activities using fossil fuels to OC and EC are 15.8 % and 21.9 %, respectively. The fossil source contributions of industrial activities to OC and EC are 38.0 % and 8.2 %, respectively. It is about 7–10 days that is needed to take to regenerate the PM2.5 pollution caused by human activities.
Agile bionic leg mechanism (ABLM) has attracted more and more attention in the development of jumping robots and high-speed running robots. However, theoretical study of the global structure for motility characteristics and its evolution is few. By using the modern mathematical tools such as singular theory, geometric topology, and group theory, a global scale analysis method for kinematic performance of mechanisms is proposed. Taking 6-bar with two rings mechanism as an example, a detailed analysis process is studied. The 6-bar ABLM designed by this theory is verified by virtual prototype simulation experiment. The global scale analysis of 4-bar linkage is also carried out by using this method, and the result is compared with the “Grashof criterion” to verify the correctness of this method. It provides a general theory and method for innovative design and global scale analysis of ABLM.
Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) can increase the level of inflammation and induce rumenitis in dairy cows. Berberine (BBR) is the major active component of Rhizoma Coptidis, which is a type of Chinese anti-inflammatory drug for gastrointestinal diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of BBR on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated rumen epithelial cells (REC) and the underlying molecular mechanisms. REC were cultured and stimulated with LPS in the presence or absence of different concentrations of BBR. The results showed that cell viability was not affected by BBR. Moreover, BBR markedly decreased the concentrations and mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6 in the LPS-treated REC in a dose-dependent manner. Importantly, Western blotting analysis showed that BBR significantly suppressed the protein expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and myeloid differentiation primary response protein (MyD88) and the phosphorylation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), inhibitory kappa B (IκBα), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in LPS-treated REC. Furthermore, the results of immunocytofluorescence showed that BBR significantly inhibited the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 induced by LPS treatment. In conclusion, the protective effects of BBR on LPS-induced inflammatory responses in REC may be due to its ability to suppress the TLR4-mediated NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. These findings suggest that BBR can be used as an anti-inflammatory drug to treat inflammation induced by SARA.
M3:2 high-speed steel (HSS) billets with or without Nb addition were prepared by spray deposition. The effects of Nb and post-thermal-mechanical processing (decomposition treatment and hot forging), as well as heat treatment, on the microstructure and properties of M3:2 HSS were investigated. The microstructure of the as-deposited M3:2 HSS consisted of equiaxed grains with a mean size of approximately 25 μm and discontinuous plate-like M2C and irregular MC carbides distributed along grain boundaries. 0.5% Nb addition can refine the M2C plates and spheroidize MC carbides. With 2% Nb addition, the refined grains with a mean size of approximately 12 μm and continuous net of M6C and a uniform distribution of NbC carbides were obtained. The decomposition of metastable M2C carbides can be accelerated with 0.5% Nb addition due to the refined size and lower thermodynamic stability of M2C plates. With the increased degree of decomposition of M2C carbide, the M6C and MC carbides became refined and more uniformly distributed after optimal thermal-mechanical processing and heat treatment, which leads to a significant increase in bend strength and toughness.
As rarely large flake graphite (9 mesh) was recently exploited in China, it was innovatively developed as the raw material to prepare a novel wound dressing based on large expanded graphite (EG) in this work. The EG worms were prepared in an easy oxidative intercalation and thermal expansion method. Afterward, chitosan was grafted onto the surface of EG by chemical modification, forming CS-EG worms. CS-EG sponge dressings were then obtained by pressing a number of CS-EG worms together by external force. Due to the porous structure and large specific surface area, the produced CS-EG sponges exhibited outstanding adsorption capacity for wound exudate. They could also promote blood coagulation by adsorbing the blood cells and proteins quickly and effectively, showing excellent hemostatic performance. The eminent performances and the simple preparation process ensure the great application potential of CS-EG as a dressing material. This is also the first time to report the application of the traditional carbon material, EG, to act as a dressing material after chemical modification.
High-energy electron radiography (HEER) has been proposed for time-resolved imaging of materials, high-energy density matter, and for inertial confinement fusion. The areal-density resolution, determined by the image intensity information is critical for these types of diagnostics. Preliminary experimental studies for different materials with the same thickness and the same areal-density target have been imaged and analyzed. Although there are some discrepancies between experimental and theory analysis, the results show that the density distribution can indeed be attained from HEER. The reason for the discrepancies has been investigated and indicates the importance of the uniformity in the transverse distribution beam illuminating the target. Furthermore, the method for generating a uniform transverse distribution beam using octupole magnets was studied and verified by simulations. The simulations also confirm that the octupole field does not affect the angle-position correlation in the center part beam, a critical requirement for the imaging lens. A more practical method for HEER using collimators and octupoles for generating more uniform beams is also described. Detailed experimental results and simulation studies are presented in this paper.
Cereal grains treated with organic acids were proved to increase ruminal resistant starch and can relieve the risk of ruminal acidosis. However, previous study mainly focussed on acid-treated barley, the effects of organic acid-treated corn is still unknown. The objectives of this study were to evaluate whether feeding ground corn steeped in citric acid (CA) would affect ruminal pH and fermentation patterns, milk production and innate immunity responses in dairy goats. Eight ruminally cannulated Saanen dairy goats were used in a crossover designed experiment. Each experimental period was 21 day long including 14 days for adaption to new diet and 7 days for sampling and data collection. The goats were fed high-grain diet contained 30% hay and 70% corn-based concentrate. The corn was steeped either in water (control) or in 0.5% (wt/vol) CA solution for 48 h. Goats fed CA diet showed improved ruminal pH status with greater mean and minimum ruminal pH, and shorter (P<0.05) duration of ruminal pH<5.6 and less area of ruminal pH<5.6, 5.8 and 6.0. Concentration of total volatile fatty acid and molar proportion of propionate were less but the molar proportion of acetate was greater (P<0.05) in goats fed the CA diet than the control diet. Concentration of ruminal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was lower (P<0.05) and that of lactic acid also tended (P<0.10) to be lower in goats fed CA than the control. Although dry matter intake, actual milk yield, yield and content of milk protein and lactose were not affected, the milk fat content and 4% fat-corrected milk tended (P<0.10) to be greater in goats fed CA diet. For the inflammatory responses, peripheral LPS did not differ, whereas the concentration of LPS binding protein and serum amyloid A tended (P<0.10) to be less in goats fed CA diet. Similarly, goats fed CA diet had less (P<0.05) concentration of haptoglobin and tumour necrosis factor. These results indicated that feeding ground corn treated with CA effectively improved ruminal pH status, thus alleviated the risk of ruminal acidosis, reduced inflammatory response, and tend to improve milk yield and milk fat test.
Ti–47Al samples with a diameter of 18 mm are obtained by electromagnetic confinement and directional solidification at different growth velocities. Controlled by a Ti–43Al–3Si seed, the α grains are aligned well and the parallel lamellar microstructure is obtained at the growth velocity of 10 μm/s. With the growth velocity increases to 25 and 50 μm/s, although the lamellar microstructures are still aligned well in the initial transition stage, the lamellar alignment fails due to the nucleation and growth of new β and α grains and then the inclined and perpendicular lamellar microstructures form eventually. The room temperature tensile properties of the different lamellar microstructures are measured and the results show that the desired lamellar microstructure has a tensile strength of 693 MPa and an elongation of 10.0% simultaneously. They are the maximum values that have been reported in binary γ-TiAl alloys so far and are far higher than those of the other two types of lamellar microstructures. The fracture behaviors of the lamellar microstructures are checked by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Two models are used to illustrate the fracture mechanism of the different lamellar structures.
Here a compact three orthogonal planes high-energy electron radiography system was proposed. One of the critical technologies, the ultra-fast beam bunches split from the bunch train are studied. The separated bunches could be transported to the three orthogonal planes of the target for dynamic radiography diagnostics. The key elements of the ultra-fast bunches split system are transverse deflecting cavity (TDC) and the twin septum magnet (TSM). The principle of TDC and TSM are briefly introduced. An example of the beam bunches split system for test experiment (40 MeV electron beam) with TDC and TSM is designed and studied by particle-tracking simulation and it confirms this method is valid and feasible. Especially with TSM, a compact three orthogonal planes radiography system can be realized. The evolution of the beam parameters along the beam line from simulation are investigated. The detailed design of the beam split system and beam dynamics simulation study are presented in this paper.
A stalagmite with high 238U content from Yangkou Cave, China, revealed the evolution of the Asian summer monsoon (ASM) between 49.1 and 59.5 ka, and the δ18O values recorded Dansgaard/Oeschger (D/O) events 13–17. The Yangkou record shows a relatively gradual transition into the D/O 14 and 16 events. The discrepancy between the abrupt and gradual transitions of D/O 14 in the records from northern and southern China, respectively, suggests different responses of the ASM to climate changes in the high northern latitudes. The higher resolution δ18O record and more precise 230Th dating indicate that the timing of D/O 14 and 17 in the Hulu records at 53 and 58 ka should be shifted to 54.3 and 59 ka, respectively. The gradual strengthening of the ASM at the onsets of D/O 16 and 14 in our record is different from the abrupt temperature rise in the northern high latitudes. Some other factors must contribute to this relatively gradual ASM change in southern China, but the actual reason is still unknown.
Effects of traveling magnetic field (TMF) on freckle formation of directionally solidified Pb–Sn alloys were investigated experimentally and numerically. The experimental results demonstrated that freckles could form without any magnetic field and with the upward TMF. In the former case, the formation location is the center. In the latter case, it diverted from the center to the surface with the increasing intensity of TMF. However, freckle could not form under the downward TMF. Numerical results indicated that the change of the formation location under upward TMF should be attributed to the different solid/liquid interface shape, and no formation under downward TMF should be attributed to the convection intensity driven by TMF. These magnetic fields are used to modulate melt flow, which is similar to the effects of the gravity. For eliminating freckle, a microgravity environment can be established under the suitable downward TMF.
Stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) effect is currently the major limitation for the power scaling of single-frequency/narrow linewidth fiber laser systems. A single-mode linearly polarized all-fiber amplifier system is set up to investigate SBS effect in triple-frequency high-power amplifiers. With this amplifier, up to 302 W output power with 83% slope efficiency is achieved and the SBS threshold is scaled up to 12 dB. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest output power of multifrequency laser from a single-mode polarization maintaining fiber. Good spectral properties and high brightness make this laser source available for the application of second harmonic generation, coherent beam combining.
Epidemic surveillance is an effective means to determine the characteristics of acute diarrhoea and the benefits of disease control and prevention. The epidemiological, clinical, and aetiological data of adult (aged ⩾15 years) acute diarrhoea in a general hospital in Shanghai were collected and analysed. Out of 2430 acute diarrhoea patients, 162 subjects were sampled (sample ratio 15:1). The sampled subjects had an average age (±s.d.) of 44 ± 18 years; 142 (87·7%) had a history that indicated ingestion of contaminated food; and 40 (24·7%), 54 (33·3%), and 73 (45·1%) patients had diarrhoea that was attributed to viral, bacterial, and unknown aetiological origins respectively. Viral diarrhoea is mainly prevalent during the winter and spring months, while bacterial and diarrhoea of unknown aetiology occur mainly in the summer months. The average age of the unknown aetiology group (48 ± 19 years) was significantly older than that of the viral diarrhoea group (39 ± 16 years). The number of patients with vomiting in the viral group (30·6%) was significantly higher than that in the bacterial (17·1%) and unknown aetiology (8·2%) groups. Viral and bacterial infections are the main cause of acute diarrhoea in Shanghai. However, further effective technological means are needed to improve the surveillance, control, and prevention of acute diarrhoea.
Tungsten oxide (WO3−x) nanomaterials with controlled morphology and composition were fabricated by thermal evaporation of WO3 and S powders at different temperatures in a vacuum tube furnace. At 850 °C the obtained green particle is still of the same monoclinic WO3 phase as that of the starting powder. At a temperature between 900 and 1100 °C, the resultant dark-blue products are particle-like clusters composed of numerous monoclinic WO2.90 short nanorods, but the clusters became looser and the nanorods grew somewhat longer as the temperature increased. At a temperature between 1150 and 1250 °C, elongated and thoroughly separate purple-red monoclinic W18O49 nanorods were obtained. The growth of the prepared WO3−x nanomaterials was controlled by a gas–solid mechanism. Their photocatalytic degradation on organic contaminants was evaluated by decomposing methylene blue (MB) in aqueous phase under sunlight, in which WO3 particles presented higher photocatalytic activity than its oxygen-deficient counterparts, WO2.90 and W18O49. But the W18O49 nanorods had higher adsorption ability to MB in all the samples.
Morphologically controllable copper sulfide (CuS) nanoneedle, nanowall, and nanosheet networks on copper substrates have been fabricated by a simple, facile, and fast method based on low-temperature chemical vapor deposition through simply adjusting the reaction conditions such as the temperature and flow rate of argon gas. The compositional and structural analyses indicated that all the obtained nano-networks were single-crystalline. And their growths were possibly controlled by a solid–liquid–solid mechanism. The photocatalytic activities of the different shaped CuS nanostructures have been evaluated by their photodegradation on rhodamine B and methylene blue in aqueous phase, which revealed that in both cases the CuS nanoneedles nano-network exhibited better performance than the other two nanostructures.