Unlike other systemic diseases, movement disorders are infrequent in hematological disease. Although some hematological diseases, such as superficial siderosis and neuroacanthocytosis, may present initially with neurological symptoms, the majority of patients with these diseases are identified due to complications related to the underlying hematological abnormalities. Each hematological disorder will be described, with clinical manifestations, pathophysiology, and treatment, with genetic considerations if appropriate.
Hemochromatosis is characterized by enhanced intestinal absorption of dietary iron. The presence of an association between hemochromatosis and movement disorders is controversial (Russo et al. 2004). Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH), which results in iron accumulation, is a common genetic disorder, affecting 0.5 percent of the US population. It is estimated that one in ten individuals are carriers of the most frequent mutation and they are typically Caucasians of Northern European descent (Feder et al. 1996). Movement disorders in individuals with HH have only infrequently been reported in the literature. This section will summarize the cases of movement disorders in the setting of hemochromatosis described in the literature. However, it remains unclear whether these rare cases can be attributed to hemochromatosis or are coincidental.