Single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are potentially an attractive material for PV applications due to their many unique structural and electrical properties. SWNTs can be directly configured as energy conversion materials to fabricate thin-film solar cells, with nanotubes serving as both photogeneration sites and charge carriers collecting/transport layers. SWNTs can be modified into either p-type conductor through chemical doping (like thionyl chloride, or just exposure to air) or n-type conductor through polymer (like polyethylene imine) functionalization. The solar cells consist of either a semitransparent thin film of p-type nanotubes deposited on an n-type silicon wafer or a semitransparent thin film of n-type SWNT on p-type substrate to create high-density p-n heterojunctions between nanotubes and silicon substrate to favor charge separation and extract electrons and holes. The high aspect ratios and large surface area of nanotubes can be beneficial to exciton dissociation and charge carrier transport thus improving the power conversion efficiency.