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Objectives: In healthcare facilities, environmental reservoirs of CPE are associated with CPE outbreaks. In the newly built NCID building, we studied the introduction of CPE in the aqueous environment. Methods: We sampled the aqueous environments (ie, sink, sink strainer, and shower drain-trap with Copan E-swabs and sink P-trap water) of 4 NCID wards (ie, 2 multidrug-resistant organism (MDRO) wards and 2 non-MDRO wards). Two sampling cycles (cycle 1, June–July 2019 and cycle 2, September–November 2019) were conducted in all 4 wards. Cycle 3 (November 2020) was conducted in 1 non-MDRO ward to investigate CPE colonization from previous cycles. Enterobacterales were identified using MALDI-TOF MS and underwent phenotypic (mCIM and eCIM) and confirmatory PCR tests for CPE. Results: We collected 448, 636, and 96 samples in cycles 1, 2, and 3, respectively. MDRO and non-MDRO wards were operational for 1 and 7 months during the first sampling cycle. The CPE prevalence rates in MDRO wards were 1.67% (95% CI, 0.46% – 4.21%) in cycle 1 and 1.76% (95% CI, 0.65% – 3.80%) in cycle 2. In the aqueous environments in MDRO wards, multiple species were detected (cycle 1: 2 K. pneumoniae, 1 E. coli, and 1 S. marcescens; cycle 2: 5 K. pneumoniae and 1 R. planticola), and multiple genotypes were detected (cycle 1: 3 blaOXA48; cycle 2: 5 blaOXA48 and 1 blaKPC). The CPE prevalence in non-MDRO wards was 1.92% (95% CI, 0.53%–4.85%) in cycle 1. The prevalence rate increased by 5.51% (95% CI, 1.99%–9.03%) to 7.43% (95% CI, 4.72%–11.04%; P = .006) in cycle 2, and by another 2.98% (95% CI, −3.82% to 9.79%) to 10.42% (95% CI, 5.11% – 18.3%; P = .353) in cycle 3. Only blaOXA48 S. marcescens were detected in all cycles (except 1 blaOXA48 K. pneumoniae in cycle 2) in the non-MDRO ward. Conclusions: CPE established rapidly in the aqueous environment of NCID wards, more so in MDRO wards than non-MDRO wards. Longitudinal studies to understand the further expansion of the CPE colonization and its impact on patients are needed.
Objectives: In this study, we compared the performance of a rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method in detecting carbapenemase-producing organisms (CPOs) and its impact on infection prevention and control (IPC) measures compared with a culture PCR method. Methods: All patients requiring CPO screening were included. Rectal swabs were collected with double rayon swabs (Copan 139C). They were simultaneously analyzed for the presence of CPOs using rapid PCR assay (Xpert Carba-R assay, Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA) and a culture–PCR method (ChromID CARBA-SMART, bioMerieux, Marcy-l’Etoile, France). For CARBA-SMART, only colored colonies (ie, Enterobacterales) were evaluated for CPOs according to the prevailing institutional protocol. We tracked time to CPO detection. Using CPO positivity from either the rapid PCR or the culture PCR method as the gold standard, we calculated the sensitivity and specificity of both tests. We calculated the number of epidemiologically linked contacts generated when the first test results were known. We prospectively followed the ward census to identify the putative additional number of contacts generated by the later known result. Contacts were patients who shared the same ward (with overlapping time) as the CPO patients. Results: Between April 2019 and June 2020, culture PCR method detected CPOs in 316 (1.3%) of 24,514 samples (blaOXA48, N = 211; blaNDM, N = 51; blaIMI, N = 21; blaIMP, N = 10; blaKPC, N = 9; mixed genotypes, N = 14). The rapid PCR test detected CPOs in 605(2.5%) of 24,514 samples (blaOXA48, N = 266; blaNDM, N = 161; blaIMP, N = 99; blaVIM, N = 29; blaKPC, N = 15; mixed genotypes, N = 35). The sensitivity of direct PCR and culture PCR methods were 94.2% (95% CI, 92.1%–95.8%) and 43.5% (95% CI, 39.6%–47.4%), respectively. Both tests had 100% specificity. The median times to detection for the rapid PCR and culture PCR methods were 3–4 hours and 4 days, respectively. Compared with rapid PCR, the culture PCR method generated additional 7,415 contacts when it also tested positive for CPOs and an additional 23,135 contacts when it tested negative for CPOs. Conclusions: In our study, the rapid PCR test was more sensitive, identified CPO faster, and generated fewer epidemiologically linked contacts than the culture PCR method.
Objectives: The increase in carbapenemase-producing organism (CPO) transmission among hospitalized patients is a growing concern. Studies investigating the transmission of CPO to epidemiologically linked contacts are scarce. We conducted an interim subgroup analysis of the ongoing multicenter household transmission of CPO in Singapore (CaPES-C) study to identify the acquisition rate of CPO among epidemiologically linked contacts of hospitalized CPO patients. Methods: This multicenter prospective cohort study was conducted between January and December 2021. We recruited CPO-positive patients and their epidemiologically linked contacts. Stool samples were collected from the patients at baseline, day 3, day 7, and at weeks 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48. Additionally, a sample was collected at the time of discharge from the hospital. Xpert Carba-R test was used to detect CPO genotypes in the stool samples. In this interim analysis, we calculated the acquisition rate of CPO among the epidemiologically linked hospital contacts of CPO positive patients using Stata version 15 software. Results: We recruited 22 (56.4%) CPO-positive index patients [blaNDM, n = 7 (31.8%); blaIMP, n = 3 (13.6%); blaOXA-48, n = 10 (45.5%), others, n = 2 (9.1%)] and 14 (35.9%) epidemiologically linked hospital contacts. The median age of CPO-positive patients was 72.5 years (IQR, 62–82) and 15 (68.2%) were female. The median age for the epidemiologically linked contacts was 82.5 years (IQR, 70–85) and 4 (28.6%) were female. After 1,082 patient days, 2 (14.3%) epidemiologically linked contacts tested positive for CPO giving an acquisition rate of 1.85 per 1,000 patient days (95% CI, 0.46 – 7.39). One of these participants acquired a concordant genotype (blaOXA-48) at day 7 and the other acquired a discordant genotype (CPO positive index, blaIMP; epidemiologically linked contact, blaNDM) at week 12 of follow-up. Conclusions: This small interim analysis revealed a high conversion rate among epidemiologically linked hospital contacts. A larger study is needed to understand the influence of genotypes, hospital environment, and human behavior on the transmission of CPO in hospitals.
Rectal colonization with multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae was found in 23 of 94 consecutively enrolled international patients hospitalized at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota. No carbapenemase producers were detected. Twenty-one isolates were extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli. Colonization was associated with gastrointestinal disease and central venous catheter placement within the antecedent year.
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