The purpose of this paper was to quantify economic and energy use implications of new improved irrigation and limited tillage production systems for the Texas High Plains. Per hectare uses of natural gas and electricity under alternative irrigation distribution systems for corn, sorghum, wheat, cotton, and soybeans were utilized to estimate total amounts of natural gas and electricity used in the production of these crops on the High Plains of Texas. The amount of diesel fuel used was estimated for conventional and limited tillage systems under dryland and irrigation production. Total amounts of water used for the five crops under the improved and conventional irrigation systems were also estimated for the High Plains. Results indicated improved irrigation and limited tillage systems reduced energy and water use on the High Plains. Total natural gas and electricity were estimated to decline over 20 percent, diesel fuel declined 32 percent, and water use for irrigation declined about 23 percent. Use of the improved irrigation and limited tillage production systems was also shown to significantly increase annual net returns to farmers ($40.0 million or 13.3 percent).