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Despite the importance of cooking in modern life, public perceptions about what it means to cook are unknown. We aimed to examine perceptions of cooking and their association with cooking confidence, attitudes and behaviours in the USA.
We designed and fielded a nationally representative survey among US adults (n 1112) in April 2015. We used factor analysis to identify perceptions about cooking and multivariate ordered logit and Poisson models to explore associations between those perceptions and cooking confidence, attitudes and behaviours.
Nationally representative web-based survey of US adults.
US adults aged ≥18 years.
Americans conceptualized cooking in three ways: the use of scratch ingredients, convenience foods and not using heat. Respondents who perceived cooking as including convenience foods were less confident in their ability to cook from scratch (OR=0·52, P<0·001) and less likely to enjoy cooking (OR=0·68, P=0·01) than those who did not. Although individuals who perceived cooking as including only scratch ingredients reported cooking dinner (4·31 times/week) and using packaged/boxed products (0·95 times/week) the least frequently, few notable differences in the frequency of cooking meals were observed.
Cooking frequency is similar among US adults regardless of how they perceive cooking, but cooking confidence and enjoyment are lowest among Americans who perceive cooking as including the use of convenience foods. These insights should inform the development of more specific measures of cooking behaviour as well as meaningful and targeted public health messages to encourage healthier cooking.
Bombings, including the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing, remain an important public health threat. However, there has been little investigation into the impressions of injury risk or protective factors of bombing survivors.
This study analyzes Oklahoma City bombing survivors' impressions of factors that influenced their risk of injury, and validates a hazard timeline outlining phases of injury risk in a building bombing.
In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted within a sample of Oklahoma City bombing survivors. Participants included 15 injured and uninjured survivors, who were located in three buildings surrounding the detonation site during the attack.
Risk factor themes included environmental glass, debris, and entrapment. Protective factors included knowledge of egress routes, shielding behaviors to deflect debris, and survival training. Building design and health status were reported as risk and protective factors. The hazard timeline was a useful tool, but should be modified to include a lay rescue phase. The combination of a narrative approach and direct questioning is an effective method of gathering the perceptions of survivors.
Investigating survivors' impressions of building bombing hazards is critical to capture injury exposures, behavior patterns, and decision-making processes during actual events, and to identify interventions that will be supported by survivors.
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