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To explore the relationship between dietary patterns and risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Chinese adults aged 45–59 years.
Dietary data were collected using a semi-quantitative FFQ. Factor analysis was used to identify the major dietary patterns. Logistic regression models were applied to clarify the association between dietary patterns and the risk of CKD.
The present study population was a part of the population-based Nutrition and Health Study performed in the city of Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, eastern China.
A total of 2437 eligible participants (45–59 years) were enrolled in the present cross-sectional study from June 2015 to December 2016.
Three major dietary patterns were identified: ‘traditional southern Chinese’, ‘Western’ and ‘grains–vegetables’ patterns, collectively accounting for 25·6 % of variance in the diet. After adjustment for potential confounders, participants in the highest quartile of the Western pattern had greater odds for CKD (OR = 1·83, 95 % CI 1·21, 2·81; P < 0·05) than those in the lowest quartile. Compared with the lowest quartile of the grains–vegetables pattern, the highest quartile had lower odds for CKD (OR = 0·84, 95 % CI 0·77, 0·93; P < 0·05). In addition, there was no significant association between the traditional southern Chinese pattern and risk of CKD (P > 0·05).
Our results suggest that the Western pattern is associated with an increased risk, whereas the grains–vegetables pattern is associated with a reduced risk for CKD. These findings can guide dietary interventions for the prevention of CKD in a middle-aged Chinese population.
The standardization process for Versatile Video Coding (VVC), the next generation video coding standard, was launched in 2018, after several recent advances in video coding technologies had been investigated under the Joint Video Experts Team (JVET) of ITU-T VCEG and ISO/IEC MPEG experts. The recent standard development status (up to VVC working draft 2) shows that the VTM software, the test model for this VVC standard, can achieve over 23% average coding gain under random access configuration when compared to the HM software, the test model of HEVC standard. This paper gives a review of recently developed video coding technologies that have been either adopted into the VVC working draft as part of the standard or under further evaluation for potential inclusions.
Existing data on folate status and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) prognosis are scarce. We prospectively examined whether serum folate concentrations at diagnosis were associated with liver cancer-specific survival (LCSS) and overall survival (OS) among 982 patients with newly diagnosed, previously untreated HCC, who were enrolled in the Guangdong Liver Cancer Cohort (GLCC) study between September 2013 and February 2017. Serum folate concentrations were measured using chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. Cox proportional hazards models were performed to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI by sex-specific quartile of serum folate. Compared with patients in the third quartile of serum folate, patients in the lowest quartile had significantly inferior LCSS (HR = 1·48; 95 % CI 1·05, 2·09) and OS (HR = 1·43; 95 % CI 1·03, 1·99) after adjustment for non-clinical and clinical prognostic factors. The associations were not significantly modified by sex, age at diagnosis, alcohol drinking status and Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage. However, there were statistically significant interactions on both multiplicative and additive scale between serum folate and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels or smoking status and the associations of lower serum folate with worse LCSS and OS were only evident among patients with CRP > 3·0 mg/l or current smokers. An inverse association with LCSS were also observed among patients with liver damage score ≥3. These results suggest that lower serum folate concentrations at diagnosis are independently associated with worse HCC survival, most prominently among patients with systemic inflammation and current smokers. A future trial of folate supplementation seems to be promising in HCC patients with lower folate status.
Sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1) has a central regulatory effect on milk fat synthesis. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) can induce mastitis and cause milk fat depression in cows. SREBP1 is also known to be associated with inflammatory regulation. Thus, in the current study, we hypothesized that LPS-induced milk fat depression in dairy cow mammary epithelial cells (DCMECs) operates via decreased SREBP1 expression and activity. To examine the hypothesis, DCMECs were isolated and purified from dairy cow mammary tissue and treated with LPS (10 µg/ml). LPS treatment of DCMECs suppressed lipid-metabolism-related transcription factor SREBP1 mRNA expression, nuclear translocation and protein expression, leading to reduced triglyceride content. The transcription levels of acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 and fatty acid synthetase were significantly down-regulated in DCMECs after LPS treatment, suggesting that acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 and fatty acid synthetase involved in de novo milk fat synthesis was regulated by SREBP1. In summary, these results suggest that LPS induces milk fat depression in dairy cow mammary epithelial cells via decreased expression of SREBP1 in a time-dependent manner.
The pathophysiology of cognitive impairment in patients with the major depressive disorder (MDD) may involve neuroinflammation mediated by cytokines.
The aim of this study was to examine the serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels, sustained attention, and their association in patients with MDD.
Thirty patients with MDD and 30 healthy controls were enrolled in this case-control study. Sustained attention was measured using the Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVP) task in the Cambridge Neuropsychological Tests Automated Battery. The serum IL-6 levels of all subjects were assessed by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.
There were significant differences in the log10RVP total hits, log10RVP total misses, and log10RVP mean latency between patients with MDD and healthy controls (F = 6.04, p = 0.017; F = 19.77, p < 0.0001; F = 14.42, p < 0.0001, respectively). The serum levels of Log10IL-6 were significantly higher in patients with MDD than in healthy controls (F = 192.27, p < 0.0001). The log10IL-6 levels were also positively correlated with the log10RVP mean latency in patients with MDD (r = 0.45, p = 0.013). A further stepwise multivariate regression analysis indicated that the log10IL-6 levels were significantly associated with the log10RVP mean latency in patients with MDD (β = 0.31, t = 2.41, p = 0.025).
Our data suggested that increased IL-6 levels were associated with the psychopathology of MDD, and that abnormal IL-6 levels were implicated in the impairment of sustained attention in patients with MDD.
Upgraded heating and current drive (H/CD) systems have been equipped on the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). With the upgraded H/CD systems, the operation space of EAST is extended, and the ability to achieve higher performance is improved. In this paper, a 0.5 dimension transport code named Minute Embedded Tokamak Integrated Simulator (METIS) is applied to predict the EAST operation space and to assess the current drive capability of the 4.6 GHz lower hybrid current drive system. Predictive simulation of several EAST scenarios, including steady-state high confinement mode (H-mode), advanced regime, high normalized beta and high electron temperature, are also performed with the available H/CD systems. The simulation results provide a guidance for forthcoming advanced EAST experiments.
To investigate the prevalence of Cyclospora cayetanensis in a longitudinal study and to conduct a population genetic analysis, fecal specimens from 6579 patients were collected during the cyclosporiasis – prevalent seasons in two urban areas of central China in 2011–2015. The overall incidence of C. cayetanensis infection was 1·2% (76/6579): 1·6% (50/3173) in Zhengzhou and 0·8% (26/3406) in Kaifeng (P < 0·05), with infections in all age groups (P > 0·05). All the isolates clustered in the C. cayetanensis clade based on the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequence phylogenetic analysis. There were 45 specimens positive for all the five C. cayetanensis microsatellite loci, and formed 29 multilocus genotypes (MLGs). The phylogenetic relationships of 54 distinct MLGs (including 25 known reference MLGs), based on the concatenated multilocus sequences, formed three main clusters. A population structure analysis showed that the 79 isolates (including 34 known reference isolates) of C. cayetanensis produced three distinct subpopulations based on allelic profile data. In conclusion, we determined the frequency of C. cayetanensis infection in humans in Henan Province. The clonal population structure of the human C. cayetanensis isolates showed linkage disequilibrium and three distinct subpopulations.
Spark plasma sintering (SPS) is adopted to fabricate transparent AlON ceramics at 1350–1500 °C under 40 MPa, using a bimodal γ-AlON powder synthesized by the carbothermal reduction and nitridation method. After holding 10 min, high density samples are obtained, and their optical transmittance is investigated over the wavelength range of 1330–6000 nm. Despite the samples SPS-processed at 1350 °C indicate the presence of three-phases: γ-AlON, α-Al2O3, and h-AlN, they show high infrared transparency, i.e., the maximum transmittance for 1.2 mm thick specimens is up to 77.3% at ∼3900 nm. Also, the processed samples exhibit high hardness of 17.81 GPa. The high infrared transmittance should be mainly attributed to high density and rationally controlled grain size distribution, and the high hardness is apparently caused by a small grain size.
A study in rodent models showed that phytosterols protected against colon carcinogenesis, probably by inhibiting dysregulated cell cycle progression and inducing cellular apoptosis. However, epidemiological studies on the relationship between phytosterols and colorectal cancer risk are quite limited. The aim of this study was to investigate dietary phytosterol intake in relation to colorectal cancer risk in the Chinese population. A case–control study was conducted from July 2010 to June 2016, recruiting 1802 eligible colorectal cancer cases plus 1813 age (5-year interval) and sex frequency-matched controls. Dietary information was collected by using a validated FFQ. The OR and 95 % CI of colorectal cancer risk were assessed by multivariable logistic regression models. A higher total intake of phytosterols was found to be associated with a 50 % reduction in colorectal cancer risk. After adjusting for various confounders, the OR of the highest quartile intake compared with the lowest quartile intake was 0·50 (95 % CI 0·41, 0·61, Ptrend<0·01) for total phytosterols. An inverse association was also found between the consumption of β-sitosterol, campesterol, campestanol and colorectal cancer risk. However, stigmasterol intake was related to an increased risk of colorectal cancer. No statistically significant association was found between β-sitostanol and colorectal cancer risk. Stratified analysis by sex showed that the positive association of stigmasterol intake with colorectal cancer risk was found only in women. These data indicated that the consumption of total phytosterols, β-sitosterol, campesterol and campestanol is inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk in a Chinese population.
An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of a high concentration of vitamin E supplementation in sow diet during the last week of gestation and lactation on the performance, milk composition, and vital immunological variables and antioxidative parameters in sows and piglets. The experiment started on day 107 of gestation and lasted until the piglets were weaned on day 21 of lactation. 48 sows were divided into two groups and fed either a basal diet with 44 IU/kg of vitamin E or a basal diet supplemented with additional vitamin E, total content of 250 IU/kg. Sow milk and blood samples were obtained on day 0 (farrowing) and on day 21 of lactation. One 21-day-old piglet per litter was selected to collect plasma. Results showed that supplementation of the maternal diet with 250 IU/kg vitamin E improved the average daily gain (ADG) and weaning weight of piglets (P < 0·05), and the concentrations of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin A (IgA) in sow plasma, colostrum and milk. The concentrations of fat in the colostrum and milk were significantly increased by supplementation with 250 IU/kg of vitamin E (P < 0·05). The level of plasma IgG, IgA, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and catalase (CAT) were all higher (P < 0·05) in piglets from sows that were fed 250 IU/kg of vitamin E than in those from the control group. The high concentration of vitamin E supplementation to the sows enhanced the concentrations of α-tocopherol in the sow milk and plasma as well as piglet plasma (P < 0·05). In conclusion, the addition to the maternal diet of vitamin E at high concentration improved the weight of piglets at weaning, and enhanced humoral immune function and antioxidant activity in sows and piglets.
The present study investigated alteration of brain resting-state activity induced by antidepressant treatment and attempted to investigate whether treatment efficacy can be predicted at an early stage of pharmacological treatment.
Forty-eight first-episode medication-free patients diagnosed with major depression received treatment with escitalopram. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was administered prior to treatment, 5 h after the first dose, during the course of pharmacological treatment (week 4) and at endpoint (week 8). Resting-state activity was evaluated in the course of the 8-week treatment and in relation to clinical improvement.
Escitalopram dynamically modified resting-state activity in depression during the treatment. After 5 h the antidepressant induced a significant decrease in the signal in the occipital cortex and an increase in the dorsolateral and dorsomedial prefrontal cortices and middle cingulate cortex. Furthermore, while remitters demonstrated more obvious changes following treatment, these were more modest in non-responders suggesting possible tonic and dynamic differences in the serotonergic system. Changes after 5 h in the caudate, occipital and temporal cortices were the best predictor of clinical remission at endpoint.
This study revealed the possibility of using the measurement of resting-state neural changes a few hours after acute administration of antidepressant to identify individuals likely to remit after a few weeks of treatment.
Flavonoids may play an important role in the protective effects of vegetables, fruits and tea against colorectal cancer. However, associations between flavonoids and colorectal cancer risk are inconsistent, and a few studies have evaluated the effect of flavonoids from different dietary sources separately. This study aimed to evaluate associations of flavonoids intake from different dietary sources with colorectal cancer risk in a Chinese population. From July 2010 to December 2015, 1632 eligible colorectal cancer cases and 1632 frequency-matched controls (age and sex) completed in-person interviews. A validated FFQ was used to estimate dietary flavonoids intake. Multivariate logistical regression models were used to calculate the OR and 95 % CI of colorectal cancer risk after adjusting for various confounders. No significant association was found between total flavonoids and colorectal cancer risk, with an adjusted OR of 1·06 (95 % CI 0·85, 1·32) comparing the highest with the lowest quartile. Anthocyanidins, flavanones and flavones intakes from total diet were found to be inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk. Compared with the lowest quartile, the adjusted OR for the highest quartile were 0·80 (95 % CI 0·64, 1·00) for anthocyanidins, 0·28 (95 % CI 0·22, 0·36) for flavanones and 0·54 (95 % CI 0·43, 0·67) for flavones. All subclasses of flavonoids from vegetables and fruits were inversely associated with colorectal cancer. However, no significant association was found between tea flavonoids and colorectal cancer risk. These data indicate that specific flavonoids, specifically flavonoids from vegetables and fruits, may be linked with the reduced risk of colorectal cancer.
This paper is devoted to time domain numerical solutions of two-dimensional (2D) material interface problems governed by the transverse magnetic (TM) and transverse electric (TE) Maxwell's equations with discontinuous electromagnetic solutions. Due to the discontinuity in wave solutions across the interface, the usual numerical methods will converge slowly or even fail to converge. This calls for the development of advanced interface treatments for popular Maxwell solvers. We will investigate such interface treatments by considering two typical Maxwell solvers – one based on collocation formulation and another based on Galerkin formulation. To restore the accuracy reduction of the collocation finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm near an interface, the physical jump conditions relating discontinuous wave solutions on both sides of the interface must be rigorously enforced. For this purpose, a novel matched interface and boundary (MIB) scheme is proposed in this work, in which new jump conditions are derived so that the discontinuous and staggered features of electric and magnetic field components can be accommodated. The resulting MIB time-domain (MIBTD) scheme satisfies the jump conditions locally and suppresses the staircase approximation errors completely over the Yee lattices. In the discontinuous Galerkin time-domain (DGTD) algorithm – a popular GalerkinMaxwell solver, a proper numerical flux can be designed to accurately capture the jumps in the electromagnetic waves across the interface and automatically preserves the discontinuity in the explicit time integration. The DGTD solution to Maxwell interface problems is explored in this work, by considering a nodal based high order discontinuous Galerkin method. In benchmark TM and TE tests with analytical solutions, both MIBTD and DGTD schemes achieve the second order of accuracy in solving circular interfaces. In comparison, the numerical convergence of the MIBTD method is slightly more uniform, while the DGTD method is more flexible and robust.
Technologies for coding non-camera-captured video contents have received great interests lately due to the rapid growth of application areas such as wireless display and screen sharing, etc. In response to the market demands, the ITU-T Video Coding Expert Group and ISO/IEC Motion Picture Expert Group have jointly launched a new standardization project, i.e. the High-Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) extensions on screen content coding (HEVC SCC). Several new video coding tools, including intra block copy, palette coding, adaptive color transform, and adaptive motion resolution, have been developed and adopted into HEVC SCC draft standard. This paper reviews the main features and coding technologies in the current HEVC SCC draft standard, with discussions about the performance and complexity aspects compared with prior arts.
Experimental X-ray powder diffraction data, unit-cell parameters, and space group for niclosamide, C13H8N2O4Cl2, are reported [a = 13.571(1) Å, b = 7.181(8) Å, c = 13.742(3) Å, β = 97.984(7)°, unit-cell volume V = 1326.40 Å3, Z = 4, and space group P21/c]. All measured lines were indexed and are consistent with the P21/c space group. No detectable impurity was observed.
This study characterized Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C strains in China in order to establish their genetic relatedness and describe the use of multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) to provide useful epidemiological information. A total of 215 N. meningitidis serogroup C strains, obtained from 2003 to 2012 in China, were characterized by MLVA with different published schemes as well as multilocus sequence typing. (i) Based on the MLVA scheme with a combination of five highly variable loci, 203 genotypes were identified; this level of discrimination supports its use for resolving closely related isolates. (ii) Based on a combination of ten low variable loci, clear phylogenetic relationships were established within sequence type complexes. In addition, there was evidence of microevolution of VNTR loci over the decade as strain lineages spread from Anhui to other provinces, the more distant the provinces from Anhui, the higher the genetic variation.
X-ray powder diffraction data, unit-cell parameters, and space group for loratadine (C22H23ClN2O2) are reported [a = 28.302(18) Å, b = 4.996(3) Å, c = 29.154(19) Å, β = 109.158(2)°, unit-cell volume V = 3894.25 Å3, Z = 8, and space group C2/c]. All measured lines were indexed and are consistent with the C2/c space group. No detectable impurities were observed.
To determine whether plastic-hardening behavior occurs in metal nanowires, an atomistic simulation was performed to investigate the tension process in a bicrystal Cu nanowire. The results indicate that bicrystal Cu nanowires exhibit strain-hardening behavior, unlike their single-crystal counterparts. The strain-hardening behavior is related to the orientation of two crystal grains, and the number of atoms determines whether strain-hardening behavior occurs in the asymmetrically tilted bicrystal Cu nanowires. Strain hardening occurs in almost bicrystal Cu nanowires with different orientation angles. The initial yield stress is determined by the grain whose orientation angle is closer to 45° among the two crystal grains, resulting in a high value of the tilting tendency factor, and thus making it easier to generate slip.