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Following ovulation, oocytes undergo a time-dependent deterioration in quality referred to as post-ovulatory ageing. Although various factors influence the post-ovulatory ageing of oocytes, oxidative stress is a key factor involved in deterioration of oocyte quality. Artemisia asiatica Nakai ex Pamp. has been widely used in East Asia as a food ingredient and traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammation, cancer, and microbial infections. Recent studies have shown that A. asiatica exhibits antioxidative effects. In this study, we investigated whether A. asiatica has the potential to attenuate deterioration in oocyte quality during post-ovulatory ageing. Freshly ovulated mouse oocytes were cultured with 0, 50, 100 or 200 μg/ml ethanol extracts of A. asiatica Nakai ex Pamp. After culture for up to 24 h, various ageing-induced oocyte abnormalities, including morphological changes, reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, apoptosis, chromosome and spindle defects, and mitochondrial aggregation were determined. Treatment of oocytes with A. asiatica extracts reduced ageing-induced morphological changes. Moreover, A. asiatica extracts decreased ROS generation and the onset of apoptosis by preventing elevation of the Bax/Bcl-2 expression ratio during post-ovulatory ageing. Furthermore, A. asiatica extracts attenuated the ageing-induced abnormalities including spindle defects, chromosome misalignment and mitochondrial aggregation. Our results demonstrate that A. asiatica can relieve deterioration in oocyte quality and delay the onset of apoptosis during post-ovulatory ageing.
Plasma doping (PLAD) process utilizing PH3 plasma to fabricate n-type junction with supplied bias of −1 kV and doping time of 60 sec under the room temperature is presented. The RTA process is performed at 900 °C for 10 sec. A defect-free surface is corroborated by TEM and DXRD analyses, and examined SIMS profiles reveal that shallow n+ junctions are formed with surface doping concentration of 1021atoms/cm3. The junction depth increases in proportion to the O2 gas flow when the N2 flow is fixed during the RTA process, resulting in a decreased sheet resistance. Measured doping profiles and the sheet resistance confirm that the n+ junction depth less than 52 nm and minimum sheet resistance of 313 Ω/□ are feasible.
The effects of the addition of mixed cations, i.e. Na+/Cs+, Ba2+/Cs+, and Ba2+/Zn2+, to the acid form sulfonated styrene copolymers on their dynamic mechanical properties and morphology were investigated. It was found that the matrix glass transition temperatures did not change with the ratio of the one cation to the other. As expected, however, the ratio of one cation to the other in the mixed cations affected cluster glass transition temperatures significantly. It was also found that the activation energies for the glass transitions for the matrix phase remained constant, while those for the cluster phase changed with the ratio of the two cations. In addition, the position of the SAXS peak was found to be affected by the type of cations. From the results obtained above, the decrease in the cluster Tg with increasing the amount of cesium and zinc cations in Na/Cs, Ba/ Cs, and Ba/Zn mixtures, were explained on the basis of the considerations of the size, charge, and type of cations, which alter the degree of clustering as well as ion-hopping mechanism.
Highly oriented diamond films were deposited on a (001) silicon substrate by bias enhanced MPCVD technique. Three-dimensional TEM characterizations were carried out to understand the nucleation and growth mechanism of diamond grains. The surface morphology, defects, and misorientations of diamond films were compared as a function of synthesizing temperatures and thickness of the films. From our experimental results the texture formation mechanism of diamond films is discussed.
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