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There are growing concerns about the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of older adults. We examined the effect of the pandemic on the risk of depression in older adults.
We analyzed data from the prospective cohort study of Korean older adults, which has been followed every 2 years. Among the 2308 participants who completed both the third and the fourth follow-up assessments, 58.4% completed their fourth follow-up before the outbreak of COVID-19 and the rest completed it during the pandemic. We conducted face-to-face diagnostic interviews using Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview and used Geriatric Depression Scale. We performed generalized estimating equations and logistic regression analyses.
The COVID-19 pandemic was associated with increased depressive symptoms in older adults [b (standard error) = 0.42 (0.20), p = 0.040] and a doubling of the risk for incident depressive disorder even in euthymic older adults without a history of depression (odds ratio = 2.44, 95% confidence interval 1.18–5.02, p = 0.016). Less social activities, which was associated with the risk of depressive disorder before the pandemic, was not associated with the risk of depressive disorder during the pandemic. However, less family gatherings, which was not associated with the risk of depressive disorder before the pandemic, was associated with the doubled risk of depressive disorder during the pandemic.
The COVID-19 pandemic significantly influences the risk of late-life depression in the community. Older adults with a lack of family gatherings may be particularly vulnerable.
Network approach has been applied to a wide variety of psychiatric disorders. The aim of the present study was to identify network structures of remitters and non-remitters in patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) at baseline and the 6-month follow-up.
Participants (n = 252) from the Korean Early Psychosis Study (KEPS) were enrolled. They were classified as remitters or non-remitters using Andreasen's criteria. We estimated network structure with 10 symptoms (three symptoms from the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, one depressive symptom, and six symptoms related to schema and rumination) as nodes using a Gaussian graphical model. Global and local network metrics were compared within and between the networks over time.
Global network metrics did not differ between the remitters and non-remitters at baseline or 6 months. However, the network structure and nodal strengths associated with positive-self and positive-others scores changed significantly in the remitters over time. Unique central symptoms for remitters and non-remitters were cognitive brooding and negative-self, respectively. The correlation stability coefficients for nodal strength were within the acceptable range.
Our findings indicate that network structure and some nodal strengths were more flexible in remitters. Negative-self could be an important target for therapeutic intervention.
Anthropogenic land use within watersheds has substantial effects on aquatic habitats and biological communities. From September 2006 to December 2008, we investigated the effects of land use on benthic macroinvertebrate communities by comparing Song Stream and Odae Stream, two adjacent mountain streams in Korea whose watersheds have different land use patterns. Song Stream is significantly disturbed by agricultural activities in the watershed, whereas Odae Stream is relatively undisturbed and is surrounded by a well-conserved forest area. Song Stream had significantly higher levels of all nutrients and sediment-related factors due to the adjacent agricultural area. As a result, Song Stream had markedly lower species community indices, such as taxa richness and abundance. In Song Stream, macroinvertebrate scrapers and predators were most adversely affected, whereas collector-gatherers became a dominant group. Based on correlation and multivariate analyses, total dissolved solids had the strongest negative relationship with macroinvertebrate assemblages, followed by electrical conductivity, total nitrogen, and pH. The proportion of cobble in stream substrate was positively related to the richness and abundance of macroinvertebrates. Our results indicate that disturbances caused by agricultural land use, particularly sand deposition, had significant adverse effects on macroinvertebrate habitats and on the biotic integrity of benthic macroinvertebrate communities.
We fabricated highly transparent and high haze ZnO:Al film for front TCO of amorphous and microcrystalline silicon solar cells. We have sputtered ZnO:Al film of 1.3 μm on the thin seed layer of about 60nm which was previously sputtered on the glass substrate by using 4% dilution of oxygen to argon gas. The ZnO:Al film grown on the seed layer had much higher crystalline phase than one without any seed layer. Our bi-layer ZnO:Al film showed low resistivity of 2.66×10-4 Ω•cm and sheet resistance of 2.08 Ω/⇐ while conventional ZnO:Al film showed resistivity of 3.24×10-4 Ω•cm and sheet resistance of 2.46 Ω/⇐. After surface texturing by 0.5% HCl wet-chemical etching, the transmittance of ZnO:Al film was increased from 83.7% to 88.1% at wavelength of 550nm through the seed layer. Also the transmittance at 800nm was increased from 82.3% to 88.9%. Especially, haze values of the ZnO:Al film were drastically increased from 58.7% to 90.6% at wavelength of 550nm by employing the seed layer. Also haze values at 800nm were increased from 22.1% to 68.1%. It is expected that the seed layer method to improve the quality of ZnO:Al film will contribute to an increase of solar cell efficiency due to the high capability of light trapping and low electrical resistivity.
We fabricated PMOS SPC-Si TFTs which show better current uniformity than ELA poly-Si TFTs and superior stability compare to a-Si:H TFT on a glass substrate employing alternating magnetic field crystallization. However the leakage current of SPC-Si TFT was rather high for circuit element of AMOLED display due to many grain boundaries which could be electron hole generation centers. We applied off-state bias annealing of VGS=5V, VDS=−20V in order to suppress the leakage current of SPC-Si TFT. When the off-state bias annealing was applied on the SPC-Si TFT, the electron carriers were trapped in the gate insulator by high gate-drain voltage (25V). The trapped electron carriers could reduce the gate-drain field, so that the leakage current of SPC-Si TFT was reduced after off-state bias annealing. We applied AC-bias stress on the gate node of SPC-Si TFT for 20,000 seconds in order to verify that the leakage current of SPC-Si TFT could be remained low at actual AMOLED display circuit after off-state bias annealing. The suppressed leakage current was not altered after AC-bias stress. The off-state bias annealed SPC-Si TFT could be used as pixel element of high quality AMOLED display.
Silicon dioxide (SiO2) films were deposited on crystalline silicon substrate by inductively coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition (ICP-CVD). In this paper, various process parameter-gas flow rate, ICP RF power, Process pressure were discussed for the investigation of refractive index. And some properties of the SiO2 film are investigated. Since there was no external substrate heating during the deposition, the SiO2 film showed poor electrical characteristics, such as shifted flat-band voltage and high effective charge density. We have proposed He plasma pre-treatment in order to reduce the interface fixed charge and some post-treatment. Our experimental results shows that He plasma pre-treatment supply thermal energy for decomposition of reactant gas and to remove effective charges. Hydrogen post-treatment also enhances electrical characteristics. We measured the effect of the plasma treatment using FT-IR spectrum and C-V characteristics.
Various GaP nanostructures such as nanowires, nanobelts, nanocables, and nanocapsules were synthesized by sublimation of ball-milled powders. They have a single-crystalline zinc blende structure with  growth direction. The morphology and structure were controlled by reactant gas, growth time, flow rate, and growth temperature. The size, morphology and properties of the nanostructures were examined by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS), electron diffraction, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, powder x-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy using a 514.5 nm argon ion laser. The photoluminescence was carried out using the 458 nm line of an argon ion laser as the excitation source. The GaP nanowires are straight, cylindrical, and smooth in surface, with mean diameter of 40 nm and length up to 300 mm. The nitrogen-doped nanobelts and nanowires were synthesized by ammonia ambient gas. EELS data reveals that the nitrogen doping occurs mainly in the surface region. The PL spectrum shows the typical isoelectronic bound exciton peaks in the range of 2.11∼2.25 e V, suggesting a concentration of (1018 cm-3 nitrogen atoms. We also synthesized two types of GaP nanocables; GaP nanowire sheathed with the amorphous silicon oxide layers and with the graphite layers. The core-shell diameter is under 30 nm and the outerlayer can be removed by acid treatment to produce the 10 nm diameter GaP nanowires. The GaP encapsulated with BCN nanotubes were synthesized under the ammonia flow using the ball-milled carbon-containing boron oxide powders. The number of BCN layers is typically 10∼20.
Various shaped single-crystalline gallium nitride (GaN) nanostructures were produced by chemical vapor deposition method in the temperature range of 900–1200 °C. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron diffraction, x-ray diffraction, electron energy loss spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and photoluminescence were used to investigate the structural and optical properties of the GaN nanostructures. We controlled the GaN nanostructures by the catalyst and temperature. The cylindrical and triangular shaped nanowires were synthesized using iron and gold nanoparticles as catalysts, respectively, in the temperature range of 900 – 1000 °C. We synthesized the nanobelts, nanosaws, and porous nanowires using gallium source/ boron oxide mixture. When the temperature of source was 1100 °C, the nanobelts having a triangle tip were grown. At the temperature higher up to 1200 °C the nanosaws and porous nanowires were formed with a large scale. The cylindrical nanowires have random growth direction, while the triangular nanowires have uniform growth direction . The growth direction of the nanobelts is perpendicular to the . Interestingly, the nanosaws and porous nanowires exhibit the same growth direction . The shift of Raman, XRD, and PL bands from those of bulk was correlated with the strains of the GaN nanostructures.
Bulk-quantity single crystalline wurtzite gallium nitride nanowires with a mean diameter of 25 nm were synthesized on silicon substrate using a catalyst-assisted reaction of gallium and gallium nitride mixture with ammonia. They exhibit a strong and broad photoluminescence in the energy range of 2.9-3.6 eV with no yellow band. X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering data suggest that the nanowires would experience biaxial compressive stresses in the inward radial direction and the induced tensile uniaxial stresses in the wire axis. The blue photoluminescence would originate from the recombination of the bound excitons under the compressive and tensile stresses.
The effect of controlling the interaction between the erbium atoms and the carriers of the host matrix is investigated using erbium doped Si/SiO2 superlattices. Based on the previous finding that controlling the location of the erbium atoms by doping only the SiO2 layers improves both the Er3+ photoluminescence intensities and the temperature quenching of the Er3+ luminescence, we identify controlling the interaction between erbium atoms and the carriers in the Si layer to be the key point. We demonstrate that by further isolating the erbium atoms from the Si layers by depositing thin buffer layers of pure SiO2 improves the Er3+ photoluminescence by several orders of magnitude while still allowing efficient excitation by carriers to dominate. Finally, we demonstrate that efficient waveguides can be fabricated using such erbium doped Si/SiO2 superlattices.
Monoclinic gallium oxide (β-Ga2O3) nanowires were catalytically synthesized by electric arc discharge of GaN powders mixed with a small amount (less than 5 %) of transition metals under a pressure of 500 Torr (80 %-Ar + 20 %-O2). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) images showed that the average diameter of the wires were about 30 nm and their lengths were as long as up to one hundred micrometer, resulting in extremely large aspect ratio. Fourier diffractogram was indicative of single crystalline nature of the β-Ga2O3 wire. HRTEM image also showed β-Ga2O3 with twin defects at the center of the wire which might play as nucleation seeds. Both X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and FT-Raman spectra of the wires identified the observed nanowires as monoclinic crystalline gallium oxides.
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