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Digital quantification of a two-dimensional structure was applied to a GDC(Gd2O3-doped CeO2)/LSM(La0.85Sr0.15MnO3) composite cathode employed for solid oxide fuel cells. With the aid of high-resolution imaging capability based on secondary and backscattered electron images, two-dimensional electron micrographs were converted to digital binary files using an image processing tool combined with the line intercept method. Statistical analysis combined with a metallurgical tool was employed to determine microstructural factors, i.e., volume fraction, size distribution, and interconnectivity. The current work reports the quantification of the two-dimensional structural images of GDC/LSM composites applicable to solid oxide fuel cells, with the aim of obtaining the volume fraction, size distribution, and interconnectivity as functions of composite composition. The volume fractions of the solid constituent phases exhibit compositional dependence in cathodes; however, LSM interconnectivity increases gradually as a function of LSM composition, whereas that of GDC decreases significantly at 50 wt% LSM.
We studied 52 children in order to assess the prevalence, natural history, and electrophysiologic effects of cardiac rhabdomyoma in tuberous sclerosis. Their ages ranged from one day to 12 years (median age 1.33 year). The tumors in the heart were found in 22 patients through cross-sectional echocardiography. The overall prevalence of cardiac rhabdomyoma was 42%. The prevalence of cardiac tumors in patients first seen in infancy was 77%, and that in patients over one year of age was 31%. Those with cardiac tumors diagnosed in infancy had more tumors per person than did the patients diagnosed after infancy, and the tumors were smaller in the patients diagnosed over one year of age. Follow-up cross-sectional echocardiography showed that almost all tumors showed spontaneous regression. Complete regression occurred more commonly in younger patients, and in those with smaller tumors. About 70% of patients with cardiac tumors had either normal findings or infrequent premature contractions on 24hour Holter monitorings. The rest of the patients with cardiac tumors showed either frequent premature contractions, atrioventricular block, or atrial tachycardia, but antiarrhythmic medication was rarely required. Cross-sectional echocardiography, therefore, seems to be the best diagnostic tool for screening cardiac rhabdomyomas in patients with tuberous sclerosis. The tumors may be managed more conservatively in view of their high rate of spontaneous regression and rather rare association with symptomatic arrhythmias.
Electron tomography and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the unique three-dimensional structures of helical or zigzagged GaN, ZnGa2O4 and Zn2SnO4 nanowires. The helical GaN nanowires adopt a helical structure that consists of six equivalent <0-111> growth directions with the axial  direction. The ZnGa2O4 nanosprings have four equivalent <011> growth directions with the  axial direction. The zigzagged Zn2SnO4 nanowires consisted of linked rhombohedrons structure having the side edges matched to the <011> direction, and the  axial direction.
We report Mn-doped GaN nanowires exhibiting ferromagnetism even at room temperature. The growth of single-crystalline wurtzite structured GaN nanowires doped homogeneously with about 5 atomic % Mn was achieved by chemical vapor deposition using the reaction of Ga/GaN/MnCl2 with NH3. The ferromagnetic hysteresis at 5 and 300 K and the temperature-dependent magnetization curves suggest the Curie temperature around 300 K. Negative magnetoresistance of individual nanowires was observed at the temperatures below 100 K.
Two longitudinal superlattice structures of In2O3(ZnO)4 and In2O3(ZnO)5 nanowires were exclusively produced by thermal evaporation method. The diameter is periodically modulated in the range of 50-90 nm. They consist of one In-O layer and five (or six) layered Zn-O slabs stacked alternately perpendicular to the long axis, with a modulation period of 1.65 (or 1.9) nm. These superlattice nanowires were doped with 6-8 % Sn. X-ray diffraction pattern reveals the structural defects of wurtzite ZnO crystals due to the In/Sn incorporation. High-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectrum suggests that In/Sn withdraw the electrons from Zn, and enhance the number of dangling-bond O 2p states, resulting in the reduction of band gap. Photoluminescence exhibit the peak shift of near band edge emission to the lower energy as the In/Sn content increases.
The Si nanowires were synthesized using a novel catalytic thermal reaction under Ar flow. The average diameter is in the range of 50 ∼ 100 nm. They consist of defect-free single-crystalline cubic structure with the  growth direction. The thickness of amorphous oxide outer layers was controllable by growth conditions or surface treatment. In order to protect the oxidation, the Si nanowires were coated with boron nitride layer by the reaction of boron oxide mixture with NH3.
Gallium oxide (Ga2O3) and indium oxide (In2O3) nanostructures were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Ga2O3 nanowires were synthesized using Ga/Ga2O3 mixture and O2. The diameter of the nanowires is 30–80 nm with an average value of 50 nm. They are consisted of single-crystalline monoclinic crystal. While the nanowires grown without catalyst exhibit a significant planar defect, the nanowires grown with nickel catalytic nanoparticles are almost defect-free. The growth direction of the nanowires grown without the catalyst is uniformly . In contrast, the nanowires grown with the catalyst have random growth direction. X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and photoluminescence are well correlated with the structural characteristics of the nanowires. The result provides an evidence for the catalyst effect in controlling the structure of nanowires. In2O3 nanostructures were also synthesized in a controlled manner by selecting the catalyst. The reactants were In and In/In2O3 mixture. The nanowires were produced using catalytic Au nanoparticles and Ga. But the unique bifurcated-structure nanobelts were instead grown without Ga. The nanowires have uniform  growth direction with rectangular cross-section. We converted the In2O3 nanowires to In2O3-Ga2O3 nanostructures.
We report the catalytic effect on the synthesis of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The CNTs were grown vertically aligned on the iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), and nickel (Ni) catalytic nanoparticles deposited on alumina substrates by thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of acetylene in the temperature range 900–1000 °C. We also synthesized them on the silicon oxide substrates by pyrolyzing iron phthalocyanine (FePc), cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc), and nickel phthalocyanine (NiPc) at 700–1000 °C. In both syntheses, the CNTs grown using Fe exhibit about 2 times higher growth rate than those using Co and Ni. As the temperature rises from 700 to 1000 °C, the growth rate of CNTs increases by a factor of 45. The Arrhenius plot of growth rates provides the activation energy 30 ± 3 kcal/mol for all three catalysts, which is similar with the diffusion energy of carbon in bulk metal. It suggests that the bulk diffusion of carbon would play a decisive role in the growth of CNTs. The diameter of CNTs is in the range of 20–100 nm, showing an increase with the temperature. As the diameter is below 30 nm, the CNTs usually exhibit a cylindrical structure. The CNTs were intrinsically doped with the nitrogen content 2–6 atomic%. The degree of crystalline perfection of the graphitic sheets increases with the temperature, but depends on the catalyst and the nitrogen content. The graphitic sheets of CNTs grown using Fe are better crystalline than those grown using Co and Ni. As the nitrogen content increases, the degree of crystalline perfection decreases and the structure becomes the bamboolike structure probably due to a release of strains.
Various GaP nanostructures such as nanowires, nanobelts, nanocables, and nanocapsules were synthesized by sublimation of ball-milled powders. They have a single-crystalline zinc blende structure with  growth direction. The morphology and structure were controlled by reactant gas, growth time, flow rate, and growth temperature. The size, morphology and properties of the nanostructures were examined by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS), electron diffraction, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, powder x-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy using a 514.5 nm argon ion laser. The photoluminescence was carried out using the 458 nm line of an argon ion laser as the excitation source. The GaP nanowires are straight, cylindrical, and smooth in surface, with mean diameter of 40 nm and length up to 300 mm. The nitrogen-doped nanobelts and nanowires were synthesized by ammonia ambient gas. EELS data reveals that the nitrogen doping occurs mainly in the surface region. The PL spectrum shows the typical isoelectronic bound exciton peaks in the range of 2.11∼2.25 e V, suggesting a concentration of (1018 cm-3 nitrogen atoms. We also synthesized two types of GaP nanocables; GaP nanowire sheathed with the amorphous silicon oxide layers and with the graphite layers. The core-shell diameter is under 30 nm and the outerlayer can be removed by acid treatment to produce the 10 nm diameter GaP nanowires. The GaP encapsulated with BCN nanotubes were synthesized under the ammonia flow using the ball-milled carbon-containing boron oxide powders. The number of BCN layers is typically 10∼20.
Various shaped single-crystalline gallium nitride (GaN) nanostructures were produced by chemical vapor deposition method in the temperature range of 900–1200 °C. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron diffraction, x-ray diffraction, electron energy loss spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and photoluminescence were used to investigate the structural and optical properties of the GaN nanostructures. We controlled the GaN nanostructures by the catalyst and temperature. The cylindrical and triangular shaped nanowires were synthesized using iron and gold nanoparticles as catalysts, respectively, in the temperature range of 900 – 1000 °C. We synthesized the nanobelts, nanosaws, and porous nanowires using gallium source/ boron oxide mixture. When the temperature of source was 1100 °C, the nanobelts having a triangle tip were grown. At the temperature higher up to 1200 °C the nanosaws and porous nanowires were formed with a large scale. The cylindrical nanowires have random growth direction, while the triangular nanowires have uniform growth direction . The growth direction of the nanobelts is perpendicular to the . Interestingly, the nanosaws and porous nanowires exhibit the same growth direction . The shift of Raman, XRD, and PL bands from those of bulk was correlated with the strains of the GaN nanostructures.
Bulk-quantity single crystalline wurtzite gallium nitride nanowires with a mean diameter of 25 nm were synthesized on silicon substrate using a catalyst-assisted reaction of gallium and gallium nitride mixture with ammonia. They exhibit a strong and broad photoluminescence in the energy range of 2.9-3.6 eV with no yellow band. X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering data suggest that the nanowires would experience biaxial compressive stresses in the inward radial direction and the induced tensile uniaxial stresses in the wire axis. The blue photoluminescence would originate from the recombination of the bound excitons under the compressive and tensile stresses.
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