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BASF Corp. has developed p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) inhibitor–resistant cotton and soybean that will allow growers to use isoxaflutole in future weed management programs. In 2019 and 2020, a multi-state non-crop research project was conducted to examine weed control following isoxaflutole applied preemergence alone and with several tank-mix partners at high and low labeled rates. At 28 d after treatment (DAT), Palmer amaranth was controlled ≥95% at six of seven locations with isoxaflutole plus the high rate of diuron or fluridone. These same combinations provided the greatest control 42 DAT at four of seven locations. Where large crabgrass was present, isoxaflutole plus the high rate of diuron, fluridone, pendimethalin, or S-metolachlor or isoxaflutole plus the low rate of fluometuron controlled large crabgrass ≥95% in two of three locations 28 DAT. In two of three locations, isoxaflutole plus the high rate of pendimethalin or S-metolachlor improved large crabgrass control 42 DAT when compared to isoxaflutole alone. At 21 DAT, morningglory was controlled ≥95% at all locations with isoxaflutole plus the high rate of diuron and at three of four locations with isoxaflutole plus the high rate of fluometuron. At 42 DAT at all locations, isoxaflutole plus diuron or fluridone and isoxaflutole plus the high rate of fluometuron improved morningglory control compared to isoxaflutole alone. These results suggest that isoxaflutole applied preemergence alone or in tank mixture is efficacious on a number of cross-spectrum annual weeds in cotton, and extended weed control may be achieved when isoxaflutole is tank-mixed with several soil-residual herbicides.
Field trials were conducted near Lubbock, TX, in 2013, 2014, and 2015 to evaluate non–2,4-D–resistant cotton response to low rates of glyphosate plus 2,4-D choline. Cotton was treated with five rates of glyphosate plus 2,4-D choline (0.0183, 0.183, 1.83, 18.3, and 183 g ae ha−1) at two application timings (nine leaf and first bloom). These rates correspond to contamination rates of 0.0008%, 0.008%, 0.08%, 0.8%, and 8%, respectively. Visual cotton injury, boll retention, lint yield, and fiber properties were recorded. When averaged over contamination rates, visual injury after applications made to nine-leaf cotton was greater than for first-bloom cotton in three of 3 yr and yield loss was greater when applications were made to nine-leaf cotton when compared with first-bloom cotton in two of 3 yr. Averaged over application timing, lint yield in 2013, 2014, and 2015 after glyphosate plus 2,4-D choline contamination rates of 0.0008% and 0.008% were not different than that of the nontreated control, whereas contamination rates of 0.08%, 0.8%, and 8% decreased yield by 3% to 20%, 45% to 58%, and 80% to 96%, respectively. Contamination rates of 0.0008%, 0.008%, 0.08%, and 0.8% rarely affected fiber quality; however, a contamination rate of 8% frequently decreased micronaire, fiber length, fiber length uniformity, and fiber strength. This decrease in fiber quality also resulted in a reduction in cotton loan value and potential financial return. Although decreases in fiber quality parameters were not observed with the 0.8% contamination rate, significant reductions in financial return occurred due to yield loss caused by injury from glyphosate plus 2,4-D choline.
The anticipated release of EnlistTM cotton, corn, and soybean cultivars likely will increase the use of 2,4-D, raising concerns over potential injury to susceptible cotton. An experiment was conducted at 12 locations over 2013 and 2014 to determine the impact of 2,4-D at rates simulating drift (2 g ae ha−1) and tank contamination (40 g ae ha−1) on cotton during six different growth stages. Growth stages at application included four leaf (4-lf), nine leaf (9-lf), first bloom (FB), FB + 2 wk, FB + 4 wk, and FB + 6 wk. Locations were grouped according to percent yield loss compared to the nontreated check (NTC), with group I having the least yield loss and group III having the most. Epinasty from 2,4-D was more pronounced with applications during vegetative growth stages. Importantly, yield loss did not correlate with visual symptomology, but more closely followed effects on boll number. The contamination rate at 9-lf, FB, or FB + 2 wk had the greatest effect across locations, reducing the number of bolls per plant when compared to the NTC, with no effect when applied at FB + 4 wk or later. A reduction of boll number was not detectable with the drift rate except in group III when applied at the FB stage. Yield was influenced by 2,4-D rate and stage of cotton growth. Over all locations, loss in yield of greater than 20% occurred at 5 of 12 locations when the drift rate was applied between 4-lf and FB + 2 wk (highest impact at FB). For the contamination rate, yield loss was observed at all 12 locations; averaged over these locations yield loss ranged from 7 to 66% across all growth stages. Results suggest the greatest yield impact from 2,4-D occurs between 9-lf and FB + 2 wk, and the level of impact is influenced by 2,4-D rate, crop growth stage, and environmental conditions.
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