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Inhibition of fatty acid synthase leads to apoptosis in cancers, which leads to high levels of fatty acid synthesis. This indicates that cancer cells depend on fatty acid in order to survive. In this study, we investigated whether or not there was a relationship between the glial tumor grade and free fatty acid level of tumor tissue.
Twenty patients who had high grade glial tumors and 20 patients who had low grade glial tumors, were included in the study. Tumors samples were obtained intraoperatively in order to measure the fatty acid levels. The fatty acids were studied in three groups: saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids. They were analyzed with gas chromatography.
The oleic acid, linoleic acid, eicosadienoic acid, arachidonic acid, and docosadienoic acid levels were high in the tumor tissue of low grade tumors. The myristic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, alpha linoleic acid, eicosenoic acid, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and ceramide levels were high in the tumor tissue of high grade glial tumors. However, none of these high values were statistically significant. The high values of behenic acid, a saturated fatty acid, in low grade glial tumors were statistically significant.
High levels of behenic acid in patients with low grade glial tumor is important as it indicates persistence of the tissue integrity and tissue resistance. behenic acid levels can be a prognostic factor in glial tumors.
To assess the quality of antibiotic prophylaxis for clean and clean-contaminated elective surgical procedures.
A cross-sectional, country-wide survey.
Thirty-six hospitals in 12 cities in Turkey.
Four hundred thirty-nine surgeons from 6 different specialties who performed selected procedures of interest.
A random sample of surgeons from different hospitals was selected. A standardized data collection form was used to record the type of procedure, the names, doses, timing of the first doses, and duration of antibiotics, important decisive factors, and problems in the management of prophylactic antibiotic use for surgical procedures.
Fifty-five percent of surgeons addressed completed the survey. For clean-contaminated procedures, 6% of surgeons did not use antibiotic prophylaxis, whereas 88% used more than a single dose. Inappropriate antibiotics were chosen for 32% of procedures. In 39% of procedures, the first dose of antibiotics was not administered during induction of anesthesia. Duration of prophylaxis was longer than 24 hours in 80% and longer than 48 hours in 46% of all procedures. Only 112 surgeons (26%) were using definitely appropriate prophylaxis in all ways. Multivariate analysis revealed that surgeons in university hospitals (OR, 2.353; CI95, 1.426–3.884; P = .001) and general surgeons (OR, 4.986; CI95, 2.890–8.604; P < .001) used antibiotic prophylaxis more appropriately. Patients not covered by health insurance (OR, 0.417; CI95, 0.225–0.772; P < .001) were associated with inappropriate prophylaxis.
Given the high frequency of antibiotics prescribed for surgical prophylaxis in Turkey, adherence to surgical prophylaxis guidelines is urgently needed.
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