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CaTiO3:Pr3+ as an oxide phosphor is expected to be applied for a field emission display(FED) due to its relatively high conductivity. For the practical use, however, the CL intensity of CaTiO3:Pr3+ has to be enhanced. We introduced Ga3+ as a co-activator into the phosphor and investigated the CL characteristics with various Ga3+ concentrations. The CL intensity of CaTiO3:Pr3+ was remarkably increased when Ti4+ atom was replaced by the Ga3+. When the Ga3+ concentration is 5 times of Pr3+ molar concentration, the emission intensity of the CaTiO3:Pr3+ phosphor with Ga3+ is about 5 times higher than Ga3+-free samples. So, it was concluded that the addition of Ga3+ is essential to enhance CL property at low voltage. We proposed the following mechanism that excitation into the host lattice leads to the formation of electrons in the conduction band and holes in the valence band. The electrons in the conduction band recombine with the holes trapped at Ga3+ and this energy is effectively transferred to Pr3+ ion, which gives its own characteristic red emission.
SrTiO3:Pr,Ga phosphor using Li2CO3 as a flux has been investigated as a red phosphor for the application to fluorescent displays operated at low voltage. In SrTiO3:Pr,Ga system, Pr3+can substitute for Sr2+ because the ionic radius of Pr3+almost coincides with that of Sr2+. Previous work, it was found by XRF analysis of SrTiO3:Pr,Ga single crystal that only a small fraction of Pr ions are incorporated in the SrTiO3 lattice. In the present study, the effect of Li addition into SrTiO3:Pr,Ga on the cathodoluminescence (CL) properties was examined at low acceleration voltage. Especially, thanks to the liquid phase of Li2CO3 during the sintering process, doped Li ions act as a lubricant for the efficient incorporation of Pr ions into SrTiO3:Pr,Ga lattice. Furthermore, it is found that the Li addition could enhance the generation of the characteristic emission of Pr-activated SrTiO3phosphors.
Composite fibers composed of chitosan and single-wall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been fabricated using a wet spinning method. The dispersion was improved by the sonic agitation of the CNTs in a chitosan solution followed by centrifugation to remove tube aggregates and any residual catalyst. The mechanical behavior was investigated using a dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA). The mechanical tests showed a dramatic increase in Young's modulus for the chitosan/CNT composite fibers fabricated using the improved dispersion method. The strain on the microfibers was determined from tensile load measurements during pH switching in acidic or basic electrolyte solutions. The microfibers showed a general actuation behavior of expanding at pH = 2 and contracting at pH = 7 under low tensile loads. However, a reverse of this actuation behavior was exhibited under high tensile loads. This anomalous pH actuation is both new and surprising. It was explained from an analysis of the differences in sample stiffness and Poisson’s ratio under tensile load in electrolyte solutions with different pH values.
Metal oxide nanoparticles within the protein ferritin can act as an energy storage source in nano-bio batteries containing ferrous ferritin and a reconstituted ferritin cage containing different inorganic elements, such as Co, Mn, Ni, and Pt. These components were introduced as two ferritin half-cells with different redox potentials existing between the ferrous ferritin and the reconstituted ferritin. The reduction of ferritin was analyzed in a solution containing 3-[N-morpholino] propanesulfonic acid buffer and oxidized methyl viologen using cyclic voltammetry. The reduction and oxidation peaks of the methyl viologen occurred at potentials of −300 and −100 mV, respectively, and the reduction and the oxidation peaks of the released Fe occurred at potentials of −300 and −100 mV, respectively. The reduction of ferritin was influenced by the pH of the ferritin solution.
Composite nanofibers including ferritin nanoparticles or multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were fabricated to enhance the physical properties of the nanofibers, such as the elastic modulus and electrical conductivity. The ferritin was homogeneously incorporated in the polymeric nanofibers, but excess carbon nanotubes (CNTs) added to the polymer solution resulted in the fabrication of composite nanofibers with rough surfaces. PVA/ferritin/CNT composite nanofibers were fabricated that had smooth surfaces, and had a good dispersion of ferritin and CNTs. These composite nanofibers are applicable to artificial muscles requiring enhanced physical properties.
The swelling behavior of chitosan hydrogels in ionic liquid–water binary systems was studied using hydrophilic room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) to elucidate the swelling properties of chitosan hydrogels. It was confirmed that chitosan hydrogels are much stiffer after immersing in a pure RTIL because the water existing inside the chitosan polymer network is extracted into the RTIL. The pH of the binary system changes when the RTIL is in contact with water. The chitosan hydrogels were fully dissociated at a 90% water content in the BMI-BF4-water binary system. The equilibrium binary system content behavior of the chitosan hydrogels depended upon the amount of free water present. The water behavior in a pure RTIL was examined using differential scanning calorimetry.
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