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Microwave properties of coplanar waveguide (CPW) transmission lines fabricated on high dielectric materials, such as ferroelectric Ba1−xSrxTiO3 films, are highly sensitive on the dimension and shape of electrodes. A small change in device dimension affects the total electrical length of the CPW, which may mislead the effective dielectric constant of the dielectric layer. Furthermore, extracting dielectric constant of high-k thin films from the measured microwave properties, such as S-parameters, is very difficult. The well known a modified conformal mapping method frequently exhibits an inconsistent dielectric constant for CPW on high-k materials. CPW transmission lines were fabricated on high-k thin films, ferroelectric Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3, which were deposited by the pulsed laser deposition with partial oxygen backgrounds. A large phase shift angle of 100° at 10 GHz was observed from the CPW (gap = 4 μm, length = 3 mm) with a 40 V of dc bias, which supports that the idea of the tunable microwave device application using ferroelectrics films. The dielectric constant of the thin ferroelectric film was extracted from the dimension of the CPW (gap, width, length) and the measured S-parameters by a modified conformal mapping. However, the dielectric constant of the ferroelectric thin film calculated by a modified conformal mapping exhibits a gap dependency; dielectric constant (990 ∼ 830) decreases with increasing gap size (4 ∼ 19 μm, respectively). For comparison, dielectric properties have been extracted by extensive EM-simulation using a HFSS™ (Ansoft) with observed dimensions of CPW devices. Total phase, which is closely related with the dielectric constant of the film, is strongly affected by gap size, film thickness, and slanted angle of CPW.
The effects of anisotropic dielectric properties of ferroelectric Ba1-xSrxTiO3 (BST) films on the characteristics of phase shifter have been studied in microwave regions at room temperature. Ferroelectric BST films with (001) and (011) orientation were epitaxially grown on (001) and (011) MgO substrates, respectively, by pulsed laser deposition method. The structures of BST films were investigated using x-ray diffraction measurement. The microwave properties of orientation engineered BST films were investigated using coplanar waveguide transmission lines that were fabricated on BST films using a thick metal layer by photolithography and etching process. The measured differential phase shift and insertion loss (S21) for (011) BST films are larger than those for (001) BST films. Dielectric constants of the ferroelectric BST films are calculated from the measured S21 using a modified conformal-mapping model.
The ferroelectric (Ba0.6Sr0.4)TiO3 (BST) films were prepared on (001) MgO single crystals by pulsed laser deposition. Coplanar waveguide (CPW) type phase shifters controlled by external dc bias field were fabricated on BST films using a 2 μm thick metal layer to reduce metal loss. Microwave properties of the CPW phase shifter were measured using a HP 8510C vector network analyzer from 0.1 – 20 GHz. The fabricated CPW phase shifters (8 mm long) exhibited differential phase angle of 100 ° at 10 GHz with a dc bias field of less than 80 kV/cm between center and ground conductors. Furthermore, a stable differential phase angle (102 ± 3.5 o) was observed from another CPW while changing the power of incident microwave from -10 to +30 dBm. Gap size dependent dielectric constant of the BST film was observed and a simple correction method was suggested in the paper. These results demonstrate the possible application of ferroelectric tunable devices on a high power tunable wireless telecommunication.
Ferroelectric BaTiO 3 thin films with perovskite structure were grown by sol-gel spin-on processing onto (111)Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates. In order to investigate the effects of space charge in BaTiO3 thin films, we measured the relative dielectric constant and the ac conductivity of the films as a function of frequency, ac oscillation amplitude and temperature. Dielectric constant and dielectric loss were 147 and 0.03 at 100 kHz, respectively. Also, BaTiO3 thin films exhibited marked dielectric relaxation above the Curie temperature and in the low frequency region below 100 Hz. This low frequency dielectric relaxation is attributed to the ionized space charge carriers such as oxygen vacancies and defects in BaTiO3 film and the interfaical polarization. The thermal activation energy for the relaxation process of the ionized space charge carriers was 0.72 eV.
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